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Table 3 The relationship between income inequality and infant mortality controlling for individual and state-level characteristics

From: State-level income inequality and mortality among infants born in the United States 2007–2010: A Cohort Study

  2007 2008 2009 2010
  Odds for Infant Mortality Odds for Infant Mortality Odds for Infant Mortality Odds for Infant Mortality
  Crude Adjusted Crude Adjusted Crude Adjusted Crude Adjusted
  OR 95%CI OR 95%CI OR 95%CI OR 95%CI OR 95% CI OR 95%CI OR 95%CI OR 95%CI
State characteristics
 Gini Z-score 1.11 (1.05,1.18) 1.01 (1.00,1.07) 1.06 (1.00,1.13) 0.98 (0.94,1.01) 1.10 (1.04,1.17) 1.01 (0.95,1.08) 1.09 (1.10,1.16) 1.04 (0.97,1.11)
 Change in Gini Z-score 0.94 (0.93,0.96) 1.03 (1.00,1.07) 0.96 (0.91,1.02) 1.04 (1.01,1.08) 0.94 (0.89,0.99) 1.03 (0.98,1.08) 0.94 (0.89,0.99) 1.06 (1.00,1.12)
 State Median Income Z-score    0.91 (0.87,0.95)    0.92 (0.87,0.96)    0.96 (0.88,1.04)    0.82 (0.78,0.87)
 Proportion non-Hispanic black Z-score    1.01 (0.97,1.05)    0.99 (0.95,1.03)    0.98 (0.93,1.03)    0.96 (0.90,1.03)
 Proportion Poor Z-score    0.91 (0.86,0.97)    0.92 (0.87,0.98)    0.99 (0.89,1.09)    0.94 (0.83,1.06)
 State Population Z-score    0.99 (0.97,1.01)    1.00 (0.98,1.02)    0.98 (0.95,1.01)    0.99 (0.96,1.03)
 Census Division (ref: New Engl)            
 Middle Atlantic    0.97 (0.89,1.06)    1.03 (0.94,1.14)    1.00 (0.87,1.15)    1.13 (0.97,1.32)
 East North Central    1.16 (1.05,1.28)    1.19 (1.06,1.33)    1.21 (1.04,1.40)    1.34 (1.13,1.59)
 West North Central    1.11 (1.00,1.23)    1.14 (1.01,1.28)    1.03 (0.89,1.19)    1.19 (1.00,1.42)
 South Atlantic    1.17 (1.05,1.31)    1.22 (1.08,1.38)    1.18 (1.00,1.38)    1.36 (1.11,1.65)
 East South Central    1.29 (1.15,1.45)    1.38 (1.22,1.56)    1.23 (1.02,1.48)    1.52 (1.22,1.89)
 West South Central    1.19 (1.07,1.33)    1.23 (1.09,1.39)    1.18 (0.99,1.40)    1.43 (1.15,1.78)
 Mountain    1.20 (1.07,1.35)    1.13 (0.99,1.28)    1.14 (0.96,1.36)    1.25 (1.04,1.52)
 Pacific    1.07 (0.96,1.19)    1.07 (0.95,1.21)    1.02 (0.86,1.21)    1.12 (0.93,1.35)
Individual Characteristics
 Mother’s Age (years)    1.00 (0.99,1.00)    0.99 (0.99,1.00)    0.99 (0.99,1.00)    1.00 (0.99,1.01)
 Mother’s Race (ref: non-Hispanic white)
  non-Hispanic black    1.91 (1.85,1.98)    1.88 (1.82,1.95)    1.90 (1.84,1.97)    1.83 (1,77,1.90)
  American Indian    1.35 (1.21,1.50)    1.23 (1.10,1.38)    1.38 (1.24,1.55)    1.30 (1.16,1.47)
  Asian or Pacific Islander    1.16 (1.08,1.25)    1.13 (1.05,1.22)    1.16 (1.08,1.26)    1.14 (1.06,1.23)
  Hispanic    0.97 (0.93,1.01)    0.98 (0.94,1.03)    0.96 (0.92,1.01)    0.98 (0.93,1.02)
 Education (ref: less than HS)            
  High School    0.90 (0.87,0.93)    0.88 (0.85,0.91)    0.88 (0.85,0.91)    0.91 (0.87,0.94)
  Post-Secondary    0.68 (0.65,0.70)    0.67 (0.65,0.70)    0.67 (0.64,0.69)    0.68 (0.66,0.71)
 Marital Status (ref: coupled)
  Single    1.35 (1.31,1.39)    1.31 (1.27,1.35)    1.32 (1.28,1.36)    1.34 (1.30,1.38)
 Nativity (ref: born outside USA)             
  US born    1.26 (1.21,1.31)    1.29 (1.24,1.35)    1.32 (1.27,1.38)    1.29 (1.24,1.35)
 Birth Order (ref: first)
  Second    1.01 (0.98,1.04)    1.03 (1.00,1.08)    1.04 (1.00,1.07)    1.03 (0.99,1.07)
  Third    1.06 (1.02,1.11)    1.12 (1.08,1.16)    1.10 (1.06,1.15)    1.10 (1.33,1.44)
  Fourth or more    1.33 (1.28,1.38)    1.41 (1.35,1.46)    1.36 (1.31,1.42)    1.38 (1.33,1.44)