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Table 6 Matrix of strategies, theory-based methods, practical applications of changing physical inactivity: examples

From: Development of interventions for an intelligent and individualized mobile health care system to promote healthy diet and physical activity: using an intervention mapping framework

Phases of change POs Mediators Moderators PPOs Strategies Evidence-based Methods IF AND THEN-Interventions Mode
Precontemplation PO1 Motivation Risk Perception PPO2 Dynamic monitoring and individualized, immediate feedback Monitor and provide feedback on performance (e.g. salt intake) of the behavior. Monitor and provide feedback on the outcome (e.g. blood pressure) of the behavior. PA frequency < 5 times a week or PA time < 15 min a day or patients’ steps < 6500 steps a day Fasting blood glucose > 7.0 mmol/L or arbitrary blood glucose > 11.1 mmol/L Mr. Wang, You have a bad control in blood glucose at present. Regular physical activity can effectively reduce blood glucose. Do you know the risk of Hyperglycemia for coronary heart disease? This video will tell you. Video
Contemplation PO2 Motivation Self-Efficacy PPO7 Role model Use the story of a role model who has healthy behaviors PA frequency < 5 times a week or PA time < 15 min a day or patients’ steps < 6500 steps a day Making a specific and individualized PA action plans Do you remember Mr. Zhang, he was in the hospital near your bed in the same ward, whose illness and age are similar to yours? Mr. Zhang has kept a regular PA. His blood pressure and blood glucose level are now normal. We believe you could do equally well. Keep it up! Text with voice
Action PO3 Volition Coping Planning PPO20 Individualization Provide personalized coping strategies according to barriers patients meet during the process of behavior change Regular PA for several days but patients’ steps < 6500 steps today Making a specific and individualized PA action planning Mr. Wang, your physical activity report shows that you have done well in recent days. But you did not make much progress today. I guess there were some causes for this. Please answer the questionnaire and so we can try to understand the reason that you did not keep up with your regular physical activity. text-messaging and a link to a questionnaire
Maintenance PO3 Volition Behavioral enjoyment PPO18 Experience of success or enjoyment Material rewards will be given to the participants after each goal is completed, such as scores, small red packets (or coupons) which can be exchanged for gifts. PA frequency > 5 times a week and PA time > 15 min a day or patients’ steps > 6500 steps a day Maintaining regular PA for 6 months or above Scores + 60, Rank + 3, monetary incentives sent at random System setting
  1. POs: Performance Objectives; PO1: Building intention to change; PO2: Building and enhancing motivation of action taking; PO3: Building and enhancing volition of action maintaining; PPOs: Proximal performance objectives; PPO2: Increasing patients’ awareness of the adverse consequences related to these risk factors; PPO7: Increasing patients’ confidence in diet and physical activity changes through role-models; PPO20: Promoting patients to coping with the barriers in maintaining healthy diet and regular physical activity; PPO18: Increasing patients’ perception of healthy diet and regular physical activity induced positive experience; PA: physical activity