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Table 1 Characteristics of cases (N = 223) and controls (N = 889). Foz do Iguassu PR, 2012–2016

From: Determinants of neonatal mortality in the largest international border of Brazil: a case-control study

Variable Cases
N (%)
Controls
N (%)
Distal Level
 Maternal age [mean (SD)] 26.6 (7.2) 26.7 (6.6)
 Less than 19 years 44 (19.7) 130 (14.6)
 From 20 to 34 years 144 (64.6) 639 (71.9)
 Over 35 years 35 (15.7) 120 (13.5)
Education (in years of study)
 Less than 7 years 10 (4.5) 35 (3.9)
 From 8 to 11 years 44 (19.7) 174 (19.6)
 Over 12 years 169 (75.8) 679 (76.4)
Marital status
 With partner 101 (45.5) 448 (50.6)
 Without partner 121 (54.5) 437 (49.4)
Race
 White 144 (64.6) 546 (61.7)
 Black 6 (2.7) 19 (2.2)
 Yellow 0 (0) 8 (0.9)
 Brown 73 (32.7) 321 (35.2)
Parity
 Primiparous 95 (42.6) 346 (39)
 Multiparous 128 (57.4) 540 (61)
Intermediate level
 Onset of prenatal care
  First trimester 152 (77.6) 742 (85.1)
  After first trimester 44 (22.4) 129 (15.9)
Prenatal care appointments
 From 0 to 3 appointments 58 (26.6) 60 (6.8)
 From 4 to 6 appointments 74 (33.9) 210 (23.7)
 7 or more appointments 86 (39.5) 615 (69.5)
Induction of delivery
 No 44 (20.3) 384 (43.6)
 Yes 173 (79.7) 497 (56.4)
Type of delivery
 Vaginal 87 (39) 385 (43.3)
 Caesarean section 136 (61) 504 (56.7)
Proximal level
 Gestational age
  Preterm 148 (49.71) 94 (11)
  Term 64 (30.2) 732 (85.6)
  Post-term 0 (0) 29 (3.40)
Sex
 Female 103 (46.6) 424 (47.4)
 Male 118 (53.4) 465 (52.3)
Birth weight
 Low weight 161 (72.2) 52 (0.59)
 Adequate weight 59 (26.4) 783 (88.1)
 Overweight 3 (0.1) 54 (0.6)
Fetal congenital anomaly
 Yes 47 (21.1) 11 (1.2)
 No 176 (78.9) 878 (98.8)
First minute Apgar score
 High 77 (35.3) 841 (94.8)
 Low 141 (64.7) 46 (5.2)