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Table 3 Variables Associated with Major Child-rearing Difficulties

From: Using epidemiological data to identify needs for child-rearing support among Chinese parents: a cross-sectional survey of parents of children aged 6 to 35 months in 15 Chinese cities

Variable Major Parenting difficultyBivariate analyses
YesNoPOR(95% CI)
Child’s Age-group6 m ~ <1y207 (30.40)474 (69.60)0.410.92 (0.76–1.2)
1y~ <2y245 (34.03)475 (65.97)0.081.19 (0.98–1.44)
2y~ <3y207 (30.22)478 (69.78)0.350.91 (0.75–1.11)
Child’s Genderboy354 (33.78)694 (66.22)0.031.23 (1.02–1.48)
girl305 (29.38)305 (70.72)  
Mother’s Age≤25y53 (29.61)126 (70.39)0.550.90 (0.65–1.26)
26-30y328 (33.06)664 (66.94)0.171.14 (0.95–1.37)
31-35y199 (31.94)424 (68.06)0.821.02 (0.84–1.25)
36-40y70 (28.11)179 (71.89)0.210.83 (0.62–1.11)
≥41y9 (21.43)33 (78.57)0.150.56 (0.28–1.23)
Mother’s Education Levelcompleted junior high school or less41 (26.62)113 (73.38)0.170.77 (0.53–1.12)
completed senior high school or technical certificate116 (30.53)264 (69.47)0.620.94 (0.74–1.20)
university and college degree444 (32.48)923 (67.52)0.231.13 (0.93–1.37)
graduate degree57 (31.15)126 (68.85)0.890.98 (0.71–1.36)
Perinatal Factors
 Delivery modenatural birth371 (31.05)824 (68.95)0.530.94 (0.78–1.14)
cesarean section286 (32.35)598 (67.65)  
 Prematureyes40 (32.52)83 (67.48)0.791.05 (0.71–1.56)
no610 (31.38)1334 (68.62)  
 Low birth weightyes32 (39.02)50 (60.98)0.131.42 (0.90–2.24)
no615 (31.01)1368 (68.99)  
Primary Caregivers
 Motheryes491 (31.37)1074 (68.63)0.691.04 (0.84–1.29)
no167 (32.30)350 (67.70)  
 Father *yes181 (27.93)467 (72.07)0.020.76 (0.63–0.95)
no477 (33.26)957 (66.74)  
 Grandparentyes384 (32.32)804 (67.68)0.420.93 (0.77–1.12)
no274 (30.65)620 (69.35)  
Families status
 Single-child family*yes483 (33.78)947 (66.22)0.001.40 (1.14–1.72)
no172 (26.67)473 (73.33)  
 Nuclear familyyes312 (31.64)674 (68.36)0.941.01 (0.84–1.21)
no345 (31.48)751 (68.52)  
 Single-parent familyyes9 (37.50)15 (62.50)0.531.31 (0.57–3.00)
no648 (31.49)1410 (68.51)  
 Extended familyyes336 (31.34)736 (68.66)0.830.98 (0.84–1.18)
no321 (31.78)689 (68.22)  
 Family’s annual income< 15,000 USD246 (31.70)530 (68.30)0.971.00 (0.83–1.22)
≥15,000 USD409 (31.61)885 (68.39)  
 Unable to meet expenses *yes107 (37.81)176 (62.19)0.031.34 (1.03–1.74)
no522 (31.20)1151 (68.80)  
  1. * Significance p < 0.05