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Table 2 Hazard Ratios from Multivariate Cox Regression Models Without the Diabetes PGS Included as a Covariate

From: Association of genetic and behavioral characteristics with the onset of diabetes

Characteristic Hazard ratio
(95% confidence interval)
  Analytic sample (n = 15,190) Non-Hispanic whites (n = 12,090) Non-Hispanic blacks (n = 3100)
Male 1.070 (0.982, 1.166) 1.071 (0.971, 1.183) 0.981 (0.819, 1.176)
Non-Hispanic white 0.735 (0.659, 0.819) NA NA
Foreign-born 0.944 (0.778, 1.146) 0.892 (0.706, 1.126) 1.059 (0.749, 1.496)
Education
 Less than high school (reference group) 1 1 1
 High school/GED 1.018 (0.904, 1.147) 0.986 (0.856, 1.135) 1.023 (0.821, 1.274)
 Some college 1.003 (0.880, 1.143) 0.986 (0.846, 1.149) 0.980 (0.763, 1.259)
 College or above 0.892 (0.773, 1.029) 0.875 (0.741, 1.033) 0.955 (0.713, 1.278)
Married/partnered 1.597 (1.447, 1.763) 1.594 (1.419, 1.790) 1.540 (1.288, 1.840)
Employment status
 Employed (reference group) 1 1 1
 Unemployed 0.981 (0.772, 1.247) 0.816 (0.593, 1.123) 1.383 (0.953, 2.007)
 Retired 0.599 (0.540, 0.665) 0.568 (0.503, 0.642) 0.738 (0.604, 0.902)
 Disabled 1.932 (1.498, 2.491) 1.818 (1.270, 2.602) 2.247 (1.533, 3.294)
 Not in labor force 0.919 (0.770, 1.097) 0.862 (0.707, 1.052) 1.189 (0.786, 1.801)
Income 0.907 (0.867, 0.950) 0.889 (0.841, 0.941) 0.953 (0.878, 1.035)
Wealth 0.920 (0.899, 0.942) 0.912 (0.885, 0.939) 0.949 (0.913, 0.987)
Medicare 0.190 (0.168, 0.214) 0.173 (0.150, 0.199) 0.253 (0.199, 0.320)
Medicaid 1.032 (0.864, 1.232) 0.993 (0.763, 1.292) 1.136 (0.893, 1.445)
Health insurance 1.034 (0.950, 1.127) 0.996 (0.903, 1.098) 1.191 (0.999, 1.420)
BMI 1.086 (1.079, 1.093) 1.098 (1.090, 1.107) 1.057 (1.045, 1.069)
Regular exerciser 1.002 (0.923, 1.089) 1.076 (0.980, 1.183) 0.833 (0.699, 0.994)
Smoking status
 Never smoker (reference group) 1 1 1
 Current smoker 1.370 (1.211, 1.550) 1.382 (1.192, 1.602) 1.320 (1.044, 1.667)
 Former smoker 1.076 (0.989, 1.171) 1.034 (0.940, 1.138) 1.228 (1.029, 1.465)
Heavy drinker 0.808 (0.699, 0.933) 0.779 (0.660, 0.921) 0.940 (0.705, 1.253)
High blood pressure 1.852 (1.700, 2.016) 1.898 (1.724, 2.090) 1.564 (1.290, 1.896)
Cardiovascular disease 1.112 (1.016, 1.216) 1.142 (1.032, 1.263) 1.053 (0.858, 1.294)
Arthritis 0.790 (0.729, 0.855) 0.771 (0.704, 0.845) 0.845 (0.716, 0.998)
Concordance 0.874 0.872 0.835
  1. Note. Models also control for birth cohort