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Table 4 Multinomial logistic regression model of illicit drug use experience (reference group: illicit drug-naïve) on binary ketamine expectancies with adjustment for sociodemographics and early-onset tobacco use (N = 1115)

From: Mis-anaesthetized society: expectancies and recreational use of ketamine in Taiwan

Variables Any ketamine use The other illicit drug use
aOR 95% CI aOR 95% CI
Model 1
 Male 1.20 (0.68–2.12) 1.27 (0.71–2.28)
 Education < college 1.48 (0.83–2.61) 0.82 (0.45–1.49)
 Unemployment 4.76 (1.59–14.19) 5.43 (2.54–11.6)
 Age in years 0.94 (0.91–0.98) 1.01 (0.98–1.04)
 Early-onset tobacco use 2.39 (1.36–4.21) 2.44 (1.39–4.28)
 High Positive expectancies 10.04 (5.23–19.27) 3.10 (1.55–6.22)
 High Negative expectancies 0.15 (0.08–0.26) 0.40 (0.21–0.76)
Model 2
 Male 1.20 (0.67–2.14) 1.26 (0.7–2.26)
 Education < college 1.46 (0.82–2.61) 0.81 (0.45–1.48)
 Unemployment 4.70 (1.60–13.76) 5.25 (2.52–10.93)
 Age in years 0.94 (0.91–0.98) 1.01 (0.98–1.04)
 Early-onset tobacco use 2.45 (1.37–4.36) 2.53 (1.45–4.39)
Ketamine expectancy combination (ref: Low Positive-High Negative)
 Low Positive-Low Negative 3.58 (1.13–11.35) 0.87 (0.36–2.07)
 High Positive-High Negative 5.49 (1.75–17.23) 1.24 (0.56–2.74)
 High Positive-Low Negative 43.47 (14.55–129.86) 4.87 (1.96–12.14)
  1. Note: (1) high or low expectancies are divided by the median of the illicit drug-naïve
  2. (2): statistically significant results are highlighted in bold