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Table 3 Positive and negative ketamine expectancies of the RDS-sample in Taipei Metropolitan Area (N = 1115), by illicit drug use experience

From: Mis-anaesthetized society: expectancies and recreational use of ketamine in Taiwan

Ketamine expectancies Illicit drug-naïve (Group 1; N = 840) Exclusive ketamine use (Group 2; N = 30) Polydrug ketamine use (Group 3; N = 132) The other illicit drug use (Group 4; N = 113) Group comparison
%wt 95% CI %wt 95% CI %wt 95% CI %wt 95% CI P Post-hocb
P1 (stand up to others) 11.2 (7.9–14.8) 22.5 (7.7–44.0) 25.5 (16.0–39.9) 12.0 (4.6–21.2) <.001 3 > 1, 4
P2 (join in with others) 46.0 (40.7–51.5) 63.7 (38.9–83.4) 76.1 (66.6–86.1) 41.6 (26.8–53.3) <.001 3 > 1, 4
P3 (drive better) 4.7 (2.4–7.6) 19.2 (1.4–41.5) 1.0 (0.0–2.7) 7.6 (0.0–17.2) <.001 2 > 1, 3; 4 > 3
P4 (make parties more fun) 35.5 (30.9–40.6) 64.5 (37.8–83.6) 72.7 (64.5–84.0) 51.8 (38.0–65.0) <.001 3 > 1, 4; 2, 4 > 1
P5 (enjoy a holiday) 20.7 (16.7–25.2) 31.9 (7.7–54.2) 27.9 (19.1–40.9) 26.3 (13.1–37.5) .074  
P6 (make the world a better place) 13.7 (10.4–17.5) 15.4 (1.9–33.6) 19.3 (10.3–30.5) 22.6 (9.6–37.6) .041  
N1 (lose controls and have accidents) 71.2 (66.3–76.5) 51.2 (29.2–79.2) 54.8 (40.8–65.4) 56.0 (40.9–69.3) <.001 1 > 3, 4
N2 (make people less friendly) 51.4 (46.2–57.1) 28.4 (12.4–53.2) 18.6 (9.8–27.7) 39.5 (25.2–51.6) <.001 1, 4 > 3
N3 (have a go at kids who are using) 69.5 (64.2–75.3) 58.6 (34.9–82.0) 74.4 (63.0–84.4) 61.3 (43.8–73.5) .099  
N4 (don’t understand things when using) 66.8 (60.9–72.5) 73.0 (52.0–90.4) 61.8 (48.9–73.1) 52.4 (36.5–64.4) .014 1 > 4
N5 (break and destroy things when using) 67.9 (62.6–73.6) 35.9 (17.7–63.1) 41.3 (28.1–55.2) 49.0 (33.6–60.2) <.001 1 > 2, 3, 4
N6 (have trouble remembering) 74.3 (69.3–79.9) 77.4 (57.5–94.4) 74.4 (63.8–83.6) 64.5 (48.3–77.3) .170  
Summary of expectancies
 Positive sum, mean (SD) 1.4 (1.5) 2.1 (1.6) 2.3 (1.5) 1.7 (1.6) <.001 3 > 1
 Negative sum, mean (SD) 4.2 (2.2) 3.5 (2.2) 3.1 (1.7) 3.6 (2.3) <.001 1 > 2, 3; 4 > 2 > 3
 High Positive (≥ 1)a, n (%) 53.5 (48.3–58.9) 71.8 (47.5–89.6) 86.0 (79.3–94.1) 70.3 (56.4–80.3) <.001 3 > 1,4; 4 > 1
 High Negative (≥ 5)a, n (%) 59.1 (53.5–64.9) 28.5 (12.6–55.0) 30.3 (16.9–43.4) 46.4 (31.5–58.6) <.001 1 > 2, 3, 4
Combination of expectancies, n (%)          <.001  
 Low Positive-High Negative 17.3 (14.1–21.6) 9.2 (0.0–25.3) 0.8 (0.1–2.0) 12.3 (4.8–21.0)   
 Low Positive-Low Negative 29.3 (23.4–34.9) 19.8 (2.9–39.6) 12.8 (5.5–20.5) 17.5 (10.0–29.5)   
 High Positive-High Negative 41.5 (36.1–46.6) 19.2 (6.4–42.5) 29.8 (16.1–42.6) 34.9 (21.3–45.8)   
 High Positive-Low Negative 11.9 (8.9–15.4) 51.8 (22.3–72.4) 56.6 (44.4–71.3) 35.3 (20.9–51.1)   
  1. aThe median of the illicit drug-naïve as the cut-off, with High Positive being ≥ the median (i.e., 1) and High Negative being ≥ the median (i.e., 5)
  2. bTukey’s HSD test in ANOVA; a Tukey-type multiple comparison for proportions in a 2*4 cross-tabulation for categorical variables (Elliott and Reisch 2006)