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Table 4 Logistic multilevel analysis with dependent variable presence (1) or absence (0) of a citizen’s initiative; reduced model for all postal code areas with interactions; B coefficient (standard error)

From: Citizens’ initiatives for care and welfare in the Netherlands: an ecological analysis

  B coefficient
Constant −2.28 (.555)
Confounders
 Level of urbanization: semi-urban and intermediate (ref = urban) −1.29 (.473)*
 Level of urbanization: semi-rural and rural (ref = urban) −.61 (.545)
 Population / 10,000 .94 (.257)*
 Socio-economic status .21 (.105)*
Care vacuum
 Current distance GP .23 (.111)*
 Current distance hospital .02 (.025)
 Current distance grocery store −.24 (.168)
 Current distance high school .12 (.050)*
 Distance to pharmacy increased (ref = no increase) .45 (.274)
 Distance to grocery store increased (ref = no increase) .72 (.452)
 Distance to high school increased (ref = no increase) −.54 (.256)*
 Percentage of migrants .01 (.012)
Capacity variables
 Social capital 1.65 (.984)
 Percentage Catholic .02 (.008)*
Model of action
 Distance to other initiatives −.23 (.095)*
 Interaction of distance to high school and distance to other initiatives −.04 (.026)
 Interaction of distance to high school and percentage Catholic .003 (.001)*
  1. *p < 0.05