Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary statistics of study sample

From: Maternal experiences of ethnic discrimination and subsequent birth outcomes in Aotearoa New Zealand

  Total sample (N = 1653) Māori (N = 510) Pacific (N = 452) Asian (N = 691)
Age (years) 29.5 (5.6) 28.7 (6.2) 29.5 (6.2) 30.2 (4.7)
Education category 2.07 (1.10) 1.8 (1.05) 1.7 (0.98) 2.6 (1.0)
Household income category 4.2 (1.6) 4.3 (1.6) 3.9 (1.6) 4.3 (1.5)
Had partner/married in pregnancy 96% (1594) 93% (473) 95% (430) 100% (691)
Smoked in pregnancy 23% (373) 38% (193) 32% (143) 5% (37)
BMI (kg/m2) 26.3 (6.8) 27.6 (6.2) 31.0 (7.6) 22.3 (3.7)
Birth weight (g) 3481 (584) 3475 (568) 3627 (595) 3242 (542)
Low birth weight (< 2500 g) 5.0% (340) 5.0% (47) 3.0% (30) 6.5% (65)
Gestation length (weeks) 39.1 (1.9) 39.1 (1.8) 39.1 (1.9) 38.9 (1.8)
Preterm birth (< 37 weeks) 6.4% (436) 5.8% (55) 5.4% (54) 6.4% (64)
Ever experienced verbal attack 26% (427) 33% (170) 20% (90) 24% (167)
Ever experienced physical attack 4% (59) 5% (25) 4% (17) 2% (17)
Any unfair treatment 30% (498) 37% (189) 28% (127) 27% (182)
  1. Mean and standard deviation are provided for continuous variables, while percentage and total number are presented for categorical variables