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Table 2 Distribution of average score of HL according to CAIHLQ a based on completed and returned survey questionnaires

From: The association between health literacy and psychosomatic symptoms of adolescents in China: a cross-sectional study

Variables (n) PA IR SM SA HA DB Overall HL
Gender
 Male (10990) 15.89 ± 4.93 20.27 ± 3.97 21.18 ± 5.35 15.06 ± 3.72 14.65 ± 4.56 16.88 ± 4.25 103.94 ± 19.83
 Female (11638) 15.04 ± 4.36 21.17 ± 3.47 21.17 ± 4.97 14.98 ± 3.54 15.27 ± 4.22 16.55 ± 3.40 104.17 ± 17.53
  t 13.881 −18.194 0.168 1.695 −10.585 6.090 − 0.936
  P-value <  0.001 <  0.001 0.860 0.090 <  0.001 <  0.001 0.349
Grade
 Junior school (11993) 16.11 ± 4.70 20.91 ± 3.72 21.79 ± 5.21 15.36 ± 3.62 15.16 ± 4.43 17.10 ± 4.23 106.45 ± 18.94
 Senior high school (10635) 14.71 ± 4.52 20.53 ± 3.76 20.49 ± 5.01 14.63 ± 3.61 14.74 ± 4.35 16.27 ± 3.95 101.37 ± 18.01
  t 22.844 7.678 19.206 15.180 7.182 15.210 20.598
  P-value <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001
Registered residence
 Rural (10882) 15.08 ± 4.47 20.65 ± 3.71 20.85 ± 5.10 14.87 ± 3.61 14.74 ± 4.33 16.19 ± 4.10 102.38 ± 18.15
 Urban (11746) 15.80 ± 4.81 20.81 ± 3.78 21.48 ± 5.20 15.16 ± 3.65 15.17 ± 4.45 17.19 ± 4.10 105.62 ± 19.03
  t −11.738 −3.386 −9.232 −5.967 − 7.373 − 18.209 −13.081
  P-value <  0.001 0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001
Boarding on school days
 Yes (11320) 14.84 ± 4.39 20.63 ± 3.66 20.69 ± 5.00 14.83 ± 3.55 14.71 ± 4.32 16.21 ± 4.00 101.90 ± 17.81
 No (11308) 16.07 ± 4.84 20.84 ± 3.83 21.67 ± 5.27 15.22 ± 3.70 15.22 ± 4.46 17.21 ± 4.18 106.23 ± 19.27
  t −20.070 −4.202 −14.231 − 8.091 − 8.853 − 18.417 − 17.530
  P-value <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001
Household structure
 Only child (9720) 15.60 ± 4.79 20.72 ± 3.89 21.31 ± 5.23 15.03 ± 3.69 15.06 ± 4.58 17.11 ± 4.15 104.81 ± 19.20
 More than one child (12908) 15.34 ± 4.57 20.75 ± 3.63 21.08 ± 5.10 15.02 ± 3.59 14.90 ± 4.35 16.41 ± 4.09 103.49 ± 18.26
  t 4.131 − 0.596 3.332 0.141 2.658 12.624 5.266
  P-value <  0.001 0.551 0.001 0.888 0.008 <  0.001 <  0.001
Father’s educational level
  < High school degree (13006) 14.99 ± 4.41 20.59 ± 3.71 20.83 ± 5.08 14.80 ± 3.61 14.70 ± 4.31 16.29 ± 4.06 102.20 ± 18.05
  ≥ High school degree (9424) 16.10 ± 4.90 20.96 ± 3.75 21.68 ± 5.20 15.34 ± 3.61 15.35 ± 4.48 17.30 ± 4.11 106.73 ± 19.01
 No father (198)
  t −17.695 −7.321 − 12.180 − 11.022 − 11.079 − 18.256 − 18.116
  P-value <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001
Mother’s educational level
  < High school degree (14335) 14.98 ± 4.41 20.58 ± 3.68 20.85 ± 5.06 14.80 ± 3.60 14.68 ± 4.31 16.34 ± 4.07 102.24 ± 17.94
  ≥ High school degree (8105) 16.30 ± 4.96 21.04 ± 3.79 21.79 ± 5.24 15.42 ± 3.63 15.48 ± 4.50 17.39 ± 4.12 107.42 ± 19.27
 No mother (188)
  t −20.544 −8.805 − 13.270 −12.247 − 13.147 − 18.568 − 20.244
  P-value <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001
Self-reported family economy
 Bad (3240) 14.78 ± 4.69 19.52 ± 4.32 19.70 ± 5.40 14.08 ± 3.96 14.30 ± 4.53 15.79 ± 4.30 98.17 ± 19.99
 General (16345) 15.35 ± 4.52 20.87 ± 3.55 21.26 ± 5.01 15.06 ± 3.52 14.97 ± 4.31 16.71 ± 4.02 104.23 ± 17.83
 Good (3043) 16.70 ± 5.19 21.30 ± 3.82 22.33 ± 5.31 15.80 ± 3.64 15.63 ± 4.60 17.66 ± 4.28 109.43 ± 19.90
  F 147.758 218.954 216.155 182.200 72.745 163.181 294.662
  P-value a <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001
Support from friends
 None (599) 14.13 ± 5.77 16.21 ± 5.54 18.13 ± 6.37 12.66 ± 4.72 13.87 ± 5.06 15.06 ± 5.11 90.05 ± 20.01
 Few (14535) 14.94 ± 4.37 20.37 ± 3.64 20.67 ± 5.02 14.66 ± 3.56 14.77 ± 4.31 16.45 ± 4.01 101.86 ± 17.74
 Lot (7494) 16.56 ± 4.92 21.79 ± 3.35 22.42 ± 5.05 15.92 ± 3.46 15.43 ± 4.48 17.34 ± 4.18 109.45 ± 18.43
  F 331.936 867.191 406.191 447.278 74.106 165.928 613.364
  P-value a <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001
  1. Statistical methods: Independent-Samples t Test or One-Way ANOVA
  2. a CAIHLQ, Chinese Adolescent Interactive Health Literacy Questionnaire. Overall HL is the mean score of all 31 items in the six subscales: PA is Physical Activity; IR is Interpersonal Relationships; SM is Stress Management; SA is Self-actualization; HA is Health awareness and DB is Dietary behavior. a is Bonferroni-adjusted P-value