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Table 4 Odds of head or neck injuries sustained by pedestrians

From: Walking against or with traffic? Evaluating pedestrian fatalities and head injuries in Taiwan

  β SD OR 95% CI P value
Pedestrian gender
 Male 0.165 0.055 1.18 1.06–1.31 0.003
 Female Ref     
Driver sex
 Male 0.181 0.063 1.20 1.06–1.36 0.004
 Female Ref     
Pedestrian age
  ≥ 65 0.265 0.108 1.30 1.05–1.61 0.015
 41–64 −0.012 0.109 0.99 0.80–1.22 0.911
 19–40 −0.509 0.122 0.60 0.47–0.76 < 0.001
  < 18y Ref     
Driver age
  ≥ 65 Ref     
 41–64 0.255 0.122 1.30 1.02–1.64 0.037
 19–40 0.258 0.119 1.30 1.03–1.64 0.030
  < 18y 0.405 0.176 1.50 1.06–2.12 0.027
Walking direction
 Back to traffic 0.231 0.104 1.26 1.03–1.54 0.026
 Facing traffic Ref     
Location
 Rural 0.174 0.078 1.19 1.03–1.38 0.021
 Urban Ref     
Drivers alcohol use
 Alcohol use 0.191 0.087 1.21 1.02–1.43 0.028
 Alcohol non-use Ref     
Light condition
 Dark unlit 0.461 0.122 1.59 1.25–2.01 < 0.001
 Dark lit 0.119 0.084 1.13 0.96–1.33 0.115
 Daylight Ref     
Crash partner
 Large vehicle 0.710 0.087 2.03 1.72–2.41 < 0.001
 Car −0.400 0.070 0.67 0.59–0.77 < 0.001
 Motorcycle Ref     
Sight distance
 Limited 0.215 0.101 1.24 1.02–1.51 0.034
 Adequate Ref     
Weather
 Adverse 0.148 0.071 1.16 1.01–1.33 0.037
 Fine Ref     
Time of crash
 Midnight hour 0.387 0.104 1.47 1.20–1.81 < 0.001
 Evening hour 0.133 0.106 1.14 0.93–1.41 0.210
 Rush hour 0.123 0.083 1.13 0.96–1.33 0.139
 Nonrush hour Ref