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Table 3 Distribution of head or neck injury according to a set of independent variables

From: Walking against or with traffic? Evaluating pedestrian fatalities and head injuries in Taiwan

  N Head and neck Other parts χ2 test
n (%) n (%) p value
Total 14,382 1561 (10.85) 12,821 (88.15)  
Pedestrian gender     < 0.001
 Male 6025 (41.89) 732 (12.15) 5302 (87.85)  
 Female 8357 (58.11) 838 (10.03) 7519 (89.97)  
Driver gender     < 0.001
 Male 9958 (69.24) 1147 (11.52) 8811 (88.48)  
 Female 4424 (30.76) 414 (9.36) 4010 (90.64)  
Pedestrian age     < 0.001
  < 18 1079 (7.50) 117 (10.84) 962 (89.16)  
 18–40 3250 (22.60) 228 (7.02) 3022 (92.98)  
 41–64 5045 (35.08) 548 (10.86) 4497 (89.14)  
  ≥ 65 5008 (34.82) 668 (13.34) 4340 (86.66)  
Driver age     0.083
  < 18 275 (1.91) 36 (13.10) 239 (86.90)  
 18–40 7912 (55.01) 870 (11.00) 7042 (89.00)  
 41–64 5169 (35.94) 566 (10.95) 4603 (89.05)  
  ≥ 65 1026 (7.13) 89 (8.67) 937 (91.33)  
Driver alcohol use     0.011
 Yes 853 (5.93) 115 (13.48) 738 (86.52)  
 No 13,529 (94.07) 1446 (10.69) 12,083 (89.31)  
Months     0.107
 Spring/summer 6689 (46.51) 696 (10.41) 5993 (89.59)  
 Autumn/winter 7693 (53.49) 865 (11.24) 6828 (88.76)  
Weather     < 0.001
 Good 9734 (67.68) 991 (10.18) 8743 (89.82)  
 Adverse 4648 (32.32) 570 (12.26) 4078 (87.74)  
Location     0.015
 Urban (speed limit <=50 km) 4322 (30.05) 419 (9.69) 3903 (90.31)  
 Rural (speed limit > 51 km) 10,060 (69.95) 1112 (11.05) 8948 (88.95)  
Light condition     < 0.001
 Daylight 7440 (51.73) 734 (9.87) 6706 (90.13)  
 Dark lit 6124 (42.58) 694 (11.33) 5430 (88.67)  
 Dark unlit 818 (5.69) 133 (16.30) 685 (83.70)  
Road surface condition     0.002
 Dry 10,941 (76.07) 1137 (10.40) 9804 (89.60)  
 Slippery 3441 (23.93) 434 (12.30) 3017 (87.70)  
Sight distance     0.002
 Adequate 13,704 (95.29) 1463 (10.65) 12,241 (89.35)  
 Limited 678 (4.71) 98 (14.55) 580 (85.55)  
Walking direction     0.050
 With traffic 10,749 (74.74) 1198 (11.15) 9551 (88.85)  
 Against traffic 3633 (25.26) 363 (9.99) 3270 (90.01)  
Crash partner     < 0.001
 Large vehicle 1252 (8.70) 246 (19.65) 1006 (80.35)  
 Car 4904 (34.10) 352 (7.18) 4552 (92.82)  
 Motorcycle 8226 (57.20) 963 (11.71) 7263 (88.29)  
Day of week     0.903
 Weekend 3637 (25.29) 397 (10.92) 3240 (89.08)  
 Weekday 10,745 (74.71) 1164 (10.83) 9581 (89.17)  
Time of crash     < 0.001
 Rush hour (0700–0859,1700–1859) 4210 (29.27) 462 (10.97) 3748 (89.03)  
 Non rush hour (0900–1659) 4251 (29.56) 385 (9.06) 3866 (90.94)  
 Evening hour (1900–2359) 4572((31.79) 511 (11.18) 4061 (88.82)  
 Midnight (00–0659) 1349 (9.38) 203 (15.05) 1146 (84.95)