Skip to main content

Table 2 Correlates of caregiver under- and over-estimation using the within-community sample, Madagascar, 2016, N = 3361

From: Caregiver perceptions of child development in rural Madagascar: a cross-sectional study

  Model (1) Model (2)
Under-estimation Over-estimation Under-estimation Over-estimation
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Child Characteristics
 Age (months) 0.97** (0.94–0.99) 1.01 (0.99–1.02) 0.96** (0.94–0.99) 1.00 (0.99–1.02)
 Gender 0.89 (0.70–1.12) 1.05 (0.92–1.19) 0.88 (0.69–1.11) 1.00 (0.88–1.14)
 Birth Order 0.99 (0.85–1.14) 1.01 (0.94–1.08) 0.99 (0.85–1.14) 1.01 (0.94–1.08)
 HAZ 0.93 (0.83–1.05) 0.71** (0.66–0.76)
 WAZ 0.99 (0.87–1.13) 0.80** (0.74–0.85)
Caregiver Characteristics
 Age (years) 0.99 (0.96–1.01) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.99 (0.96–1.01) 1.00 (0.99–1.01)
 Education     
 No school [ref] 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Primary or less 1.07 (0.76–1.51) 0.95 (0.77–1.18) 1.07 (0.76–1.51) 0.96 (0.78–1.19)
 Secondary or Higher 0.92 (0.57–1.48) 0.70** (0.54–0.91) 0.92 (0.57–1.49) 0.72* (0.56–0.93)
 Depression Score 1.01 (0.86–1.19) 1.01 (0.93–1.10) 1.01 (0.86–1.19) 1.02 (0.94–1.10)
Belief of influence on child intelligence
 None [ref] 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Some 0.94 (0.66–1.35) 0.97 (0.77–1.21) 0.95 (0.66–1.36) 0.97 (0.78–1.22)
 A lot 0.68* (0.49–0.94) 0.99 (0.80–1.22) 0.68* (0.49–0.94) 0.99 (0.81–1.22)
Household Characteristics
 Household Size 1.04 (0.98–1.10) 1.01 (0.98–1.04) 1.04 (0.98–1.10) 1.02 (0.99–1.05)
 Family Care Indicator Score 0.96 (0.80–1.16) 1.00 (0.89–1.12) 0.96 (0.79–1.15) 0.98 (0.88–1.10)
Wealth Quintiles
 Q1 (lowest) [ref] 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Q2 0.80 (0.51–1.25) 0.91 (0.71–1.15) 0.80 (0.51–1.25) 0.92 (0.73–1.17)
 Q3 0.84 (0.54–1.32) 1.06 (0.84–1.33) 0.84 (0.54–1.31) 1.06 (0.84–1.35)
 Q4 0.95 (0.59–1.52) 0.90 (0.71–1.13) 0.94 (0.59–1.50) 0.91 (0.73–1.14)
 Q5 (highest) 0.71 (0.43–1.17) 0.95 (0.73–1.23) 0.70 (0.42–1.16) 0.95 (0.73–1.24)
  1. Multinomial logistic regression with matched caregiver-perceived child intelligence and ASQ-I ranking as the reference outcome category. All estimations adjusted for treatment arm and region, and corrected for clustering at the village level. Model (1) included height-for-age z-score while Model (2) included weight-for-age z-score.
  2. ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05