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Table 3 Relationships between healthy life expectancy in 2010 and exercise or sports among middle-aged males in each prefecture between 2005 and 2010

From: Exercise or sports in midlife and healthy life expectancy: an ecological study in all prefectures in Japan

  2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
β p β p β p β p β p β p
Rate of Engagement in exercise or sports 0.333 0.029 0.311 0.031 0.313 0.049 0.400 0.006 0.450 0.002 0.402 0.004
Rate of specific activity methods of exercise or sports
 By oneself 0.000 0.999 0.075 0.606 0.106 0.478 0.182 0.211 0.205 0.182 0.240 0.105
 With families or friends 0.349 0.026 0.379 0.031 0.401 0.019 0.369 0.013 0.342 0.019 0.336 0.022
 With co-workers −0.027 0.860 0.029 0.865 −0.207 0.166 −0.030 0.837 0.154 0.332 0.034 0.827
 In a neighborhood community association 0.382 0.010 0.155 0.306 0.172 0.251 0.124 0.403 0.214 0.154 0.068 0.646
 In a non-profit organization or corporation in the public interest 0.224 0.166 0.021 0.891 0.099 0.528 0.118 0.424 −0.042 0.798 0.001 0.992
  1. Weighted multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for age, living arrangements, employment status, and chronic diseases
  2. N = 47 (All prefectures in Japan)