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Table 1 Characteristics of middle-aged males in each prefecture between 2005 and 2010

From: Exercise or sports in midlife and healthy life expectancy: an ecological study in all prefectures in Japan

  2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Mean ± SD Min Max Mean ± SD Min Max Mean ± SD Min Max Mean ± SD Min Max Mean ± SD Min Max Mean ± SD Min Max
Age (Years) 54.6 ± 0.3 53.7 55.7 55.7 ± 0.2 55.1 56.6 56.7 ± 0.3 55.9 57.8 57.7 ± 0.3 57.1 58.6 58.7 ± 0.2 58.0 59.5 59.7 ± 0.3 59.2 60.7
Living with others (%) 93.5 ± 2.5 86.2 97.7 94.6 ± 2.3 87.4 98.7 95.0 ± 2.1 90.1 99.0 94.3 ± 2.2 89.1 97.5 94.4 ± 2.6 87.1 100.0 94.4 ± 2.5 86.8 98.4
Employed (%) 93.9 ± 1.7 89.6 97.6 92.6 ± 2.2 86.0 96.2 91.1 ± 2.7 83.5 96.4 89.1 ± 2.9 81.5 93.6 85.6 ± 2.8 79.5 90.7 83.7 ± 3.4 74.7 94.7
Presence of chronic diseases (%) 34.1 ± 3.5 24.3 41.1 46.2 ± 3.8 36.1 53.1 49.4 ± 3.9 37.6 58.6 48.5 ± 4.3 37.5 58.1 50.1 ± 4.1 41.1 58.7 50.4 ± 4.5 41.6 60.1
Exercise or sports (%) 41.6 ± 5.6 28.9 51.9 43.4 ± 6.0 32.3 57.0 44.7 ± 6.0 29.8 57.2 45.4 ± 6.2 31.8 58.6 46.5 ± 6.3 33.1 56.8 47.4 ± 6.1 34.2 57.6
Specific activity methods of exercise or sports
 By oneself (%) 15.9 ± 2.9 11.0 22.7 17.4 ± 3.5 10.0 25.9 19.0 ± 3.5 11.9 26.5 20.2 ± 3.2 13.5 28.4 21.0 ± 3.5 10.9 28.1 22.5 ± 3.8 14.1 31.5
 With families or friends (%) 15.0 ± 3.0 7.5 21.1 15.5 ± 3.8 7.2 25.2 15.5 ± 4.0 8.4 26.7 15.6 ± 3.8 5.4 24.1 16.2 ± 3.7 8.2 23.4 15.5 ± 4.1 6.4 26.5
 With co-workers (%) 6.5 ± 2.0 2.1 10.6 6.4 ± 2.4 1.8 12.6 5.9 ± 2.3 2.0 10.5 5.3 ± 2.4 0.0 9.4 5.2 ± 1.6 2.4 8.6 4.6 ± 2.2 0.0 9.7
 In a neighborhood community association (%) 3.5 ± 2.0 0.6 9.3 3.5 ± 2.6 0.0 11.3 3.6 ± 2.4 0.5 11.9 3.5 ± 2.5 0.0 12.0 3.4 ± 2.8 0.0 12.9 4.0 ± 3.3 0.8 20.0
 In a non-profit organization or corporation in the public interest (%) 0.6 ± 0.6 0.0 2.7 0.7 ± 0.8 0.0 3.3 0.8 ± 0.9 0.0 3.6 0.7 ± 0.7 0.0 3.0 0.7 ± 0.6 0.0 2.4 0.8 ± 0.8 0.0 3.8
  1. SD Standard deviation
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