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Table 4 Characteristics of studies on burnout among midwives and health professional students in sub-Saharan Africa (N = 9)

From: Systematic review of burnout among healthcare providers in sub-Saharan Africa

First Author, Year Country Study population Burnout assessment Reported burnout Main findings
Midwives (N = 2)
 Muliira, 2016 [114] Uganda Midwives in two rural districts (N = 224) ProQOL, burnout subscale 36.9 ± 6.2 (mean ± SD) Compassion satisfaction was associated with psychological well-being (p < 0.01) and job satisfaction (p < 0.01). Burnout and secondary traumatic stress were associated with education level (p < 0.01), marital status (p < 0.01), involvement in non-midwifery healthcare (p < 0.01), and physical well-being (p < 0.01).
 Rouleau, 2012 [115] Senegal Midwives from 22 hospitals (N = 185) MBI Emotional exhaustion (mean ± SD): 35.4 ± 9.6
Depersonalization: 11.4 ± 6.1
Personal accomplishment: 39.7 ± 4.8
Emotional exhaustion was inversely associated with remuneration (p = 0.02) and task satisfaction (p = 0.03). Actively job searching was associated with being dissatisfied with job security (p < 0.01), and voluntary quitting was associated with dissatisfaction with continuing education (p < 0.01).
Medical and nursing students (N = 7)
 Colby, 2018 [116] South Africa Medical students (N = 91) MBI-HSS 41.7% had moderate burnout on the depersonalization subscale. 58.2% had high burnout on the personal accomplishment. Equal numbers of participants reported low or high emotional exhaustion (39.6 and 39.6%, respectively). Overall, 46.1% reported high, 33.8% moderate, and 20% low burnout. There were significant associations between the psychological health subscale of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment and all subscales of the MBI, in particular emotional exhaustion (p < 0.01).
 Gordon, 2016 [117] South Africa Oral hygiene students (N = 89) MBI Emotional exhaustion (mean ± SD): 3.3 ± 1.8
Depersonalization: 1.3 ± 1.6
Personal accomplishment: 3.7 ± 1.7
There were significant differences in burnout between 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year students (p = 0.039).
 Mason, 2012 [118] South Africa Nursing students (N = 80) ProQOL, burnout subscale 63.75% had a moderate to high risk for burnout Burnout was significantly associated with compassion fatigue and negatively associated with compassion satisfaction (p < 0.01).
 Mathias, 2017 [119] South Africa Undergraduate nursing students (N = 67) ProQOL, burnout subscale 6% had low levels of burnout, 94% moderate, & none had high burnout The majority of nursing students experienced average levels of burnout, compassion fatigue, and compassion satisfaction.
 Njim, 2018 [120] Cameroon Nursing students (N = 447) Oldenburg Burnout Inventory Disengagement (mean ± SD): 17.1 ± 3.1
Exhaustion: 20.9 ± 3.0
Satisfaction with results and regret with choice of nursing studies were determinants of burnout (p < 0.05)
 Njim, 2019 [121] Cameroon Medical students (N = 413) Oldenburg Burnout Inventory Disengagement (mean ± SD): 16.6 ± 3.4
Exhaustion: 20.5 ± 3.5
Marital status, relationship difficulties, cumulative GPA, regretting the choice of medical studies, and recreational drug use significantly predicted burnout (p < 0.05).
 Stein, 2016 [122] South Africa Paramedic students (N = 93) CBI Work related burnout (mean ± SD): 49.1 ± 12.9
Personal burnout: 53.4 ± 15.0
Patient care related burnout: 34.0 ± 19.5
Overall burnout: 45.2 ± 11.5
31% reported high burnout
There were no significant differences in mean burnout between the 4 academic years of study in work-related, personal, and patient care-related burnout.
  1. Abbreviations: CBI Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, MBI Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI-HSS Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey, ProQOL Professional Quality of Life Scale