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Table 2 Psychometric properties of Chinese-version HLQ items and scales

From: The health literacy questionnaire among the aged in Changsha, China: confirmatory factor analysis

Item Factor loading (95% CL) R2 Composite reliability (95%CI) Cronbach’s α (italics)
1. Feeling understood and supported by health care providers CR =0.85 α = 0.86
 I have at least one healthcare provider who knows me well 0.68 0.55–0.77 0.46  
 I have at least one healthcare provider I can discuss … 0.70 0.60–0.79 0.49  
 I have the healthcare providers I need to help me work 0.79 0.72–0.86 0.63  
 I can rely on at least one healthcare provider 0.87 0.81–0.93 0.76  
 Fit with 1 correlated residual -χ2(ML) =0.528, p = 0.468, CFI = 1.000, TLI = 1.005, RMSEA =0.000
2. Having sufficient information to manage my health CR =0.78 α = 0.78
 I feel I have good information about health 0.51 0.39–0.61 0.26  
 I have enough information to help me deal with my … 0.76 0.68–0.84 0.58  
 I am sure I have all the information I need to manage 0.72 0.60–0.83 0.52  
 I have all the information I need to look after my health 0.75 0.65–0.83 0.56  
Model fit—χ2 (ML) = 5.427, p = 0.066, CFI = 0.991, TLI = 0.973, RMSEA =0.071
3. Actively managing my health CR =0.77 α = 0.78
 I spend quite a lot of time actively managing my health 0.75 0.65–0.83 0.56  
 I make plans for what I need to do to be healthy. 0.47 0.33–0.59 0.23  
 Despite other things in my life, I make time to be healthy 0.81 0.72–0.88 0.65  
 I set my own goals about health and fitness 0.48 0.33–0.61 0.23  
 There are things that I do regularly to make myself more healthy 0.65 0.52–0.75 0.43  
Fit with 1 correlated residual—χ2(ML) = 9.566, p = 0.048, CFI = 0.989, TLI = 0.972, RMSEA =0.064
4. Social support for health CR =0.81 α = 0.81
 I can get access to several people who understand and 0.53 0.41–0.64 0.28  
 When I feel ill, the people around me really understand 0.62 0.52–0.72 0.39  
 If I need help, I have plenty of people I can rely on. 0.66 0.59–0.76 0.44  
 I have at least one person who can come to medical … 0.76 0.68–0.83 0.58  
 I have strong support from family or friends. 0.78 0.71–0.85 0.61  
 Fit with one correlated residuals - χ2 (ML) = 5.143, p = 0.2734, CFI = 0.998, TLI = 0.994, RMSEA =0.029
5. Appraisal of health information CR =0.79 α =0.80
 I compare health information from different sources 0.63 0.52–0.71 0.39  
 When I see new information about health, I check up … 0.68 0.56–0.77 0.47  
 I always compare health information from different sources … 0.73 0.65–0.81 0.54  
 I know how to find out if the health information I receive is 0.71 0.62–0.79 0.50  
 I ask healthcare providers about the quality of the … 0.52 0.40–0.62 0.27  
 Fit with one correlated residual - χ2 (ML) = 6.630, p = 0.157, CFI = 0.986, TLI = 0.994, RMSEA =0.044
6. Ability to actively engage with healthcare providers CR =0.84 α =0.84
 Make sure that healthcare providers understand your … 0.78 0.71–0.84 0.62  
 Feel able to discuss your health concerns with a … 0.83 0.76–0.89 0.69  
 Have good discussions about your health with doctors 0.78 0.72–0.83 0.61  
 Discuss things with healthcare providers until you understand … 0.63 0.52–0.72 0.40  
 Ask healthcare providers questions to get the … 0.56 0.44–0.66 0.32  
 Fit with one correlated residual - χ2(ML) = 8.928, p = 0.063, CFI = 0.981, TLI = 0.998, RMSEA =0.060
7. Navigating the healthcare system CR =0.75 α = 0.75
 Find the right healthcare 0.59 0.50–0.67 0.35  
 Get to see the healthcare providers I need to 0.52 0.41–0.63 0.28  
 Decide which healthcare provider you need to see 0.78 0.69–0.85 0.61  
 Make sure you find the right place to get the health … 0.71 0.59–0.81 0.51  
 Find out what healthcare services you are entitled to 0.20 0.06–0.35 0.04  
 Work out what is the best care for you 0.59 0.48–0.69 0.35  
 Fit with three correlated residuals - χ2(ML) = 9.525, p = 0.146, CFI = 0.993, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA =0.041
8. Ability to find good health information CR =0.78 α = 0.78
 Find information about health problems 0.67 0.55–0.75 0.44  
 Find health information from several different places 0.75 0.65–0.83 0.56  
 Get information about health so you are up to date … 0.64 0.54–0.71 0.40  
 Get health information in words you understand 0.59 0.48–0.69 0.34  
 Get health information by yourself 0.59 0.48–0.68 0.34  
 Model fit—χ2(ML) = 7.502, p = 0.186, CFI = 0.994, TLI = 0.988, RMSEA =0.038
9. Understanding health information well enough to know what to do CR =0.74 α = 0.77
 Confidently fill medical forms in the correct way 0.62 0.52–0.71 0.39  
 Accurately follow the instructions from healthcare providers 0.46 0.35–0.58 0.21  
 Read and understand written health information 0.76 0.64–0.856 0.57  
 Read and understand all the information on medication labels 0.69 0.59–0.78 0.48  
 Understand what healthcare providers are asking you to do 0.44 0.31–0.55 0.19  
  1.  Fit with two correlated residual - χ2 (ML) = 5.978, p = 0.113, CFI = 0.977, TLI = 0.998, RMSEA = 0.054