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Table 1 Data quality of the translated Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) among the Changsha elder population (n = 343)

From: The health literacy questionnaire among the aged in Changsha, China: confirmatory factor analysis

Subscale/items Obs (n = 343) Missing [n(%)] Median Mean (SD) Strongly disagree (%) Disagree (%) Agree (%) Strongly agree (%) Difficulty level (%) (95%CL)
Feeling understood and supported by health care providers
 I have at least one healthcare provider who knows me well 343 0 3 2.66 (0.70) 4.7 33.2 53.9 8.2 37.9 (36.5–49.1)
 I have at least one healthcare provider I can discuss 343 0 3 2.68 (0.67) 5.2 27.7 60.6 6.4 32.9 (30.7–43.0)
 I have the healthcare providers I need to help me work 343 0 3 2.67 (0.69) 5.8 28.0 59.5 6.7 33.8 (31.1–43.5)
 I can rely on at least one healthcare provider 343 0 3 2.61 (0.75) 7.6 32.4 51.6 8.5 40.0 (39.2–53.2)
     2.66 (0.70)      36.2
2. Having sufficient information to manage my health
 I feel I have good information about health 343 0 3 2.80 (0.62) 2.9 22.4 66.8 7.9 25.3 (22.9–34.3)
 I have enough information to help me deal with my 343 0 3 2.60 (0.62) 1.7 42 50.7 5.5 43.7 (40.6–52.3))
 I am sure I have all the information I need to manage 343 0 3 2.59 (0.68) 3.8 40.5 48.4 7.3 44.3 (39.7–52.0)
 I have all the information I need to look after my health 343 0 3 2.58 (0.68) 4.1 41.1 47.8 7.0 45.2 (39.8–52.5)
     2.64 (0.65)      39.6
3. Actively managing my health
 I spend quite a lot of time actively managing my health 343 0 3 2.77 (0.66) 1.5 31.2 56.0 11.4 32.7 (30.2–41.0)
 I make plans for what I need to do to be healthy. 343 0 3 2.60 (0.78) 9.9 28.9 52.8 8.5 38.8 (33.5–48.0)
 Despite other things in my life, I make time to be healthy 343 0 3 2.83 (0.64) 2.3 23.6 63.0 11.1 25.9 (23.4–34.3)
 I set my own goals about health and fitness 343 0 3 2.62 (0.74) 8.2 29.2 55.4 7.3 37.4 (31.1–44.6)
 There are things that I do regularly to make myself more healthy 343 0 3 2.87 (0.63) 2.3 19.5 66.5 11.7 21.8 (18.0–28.4)
     2.74 (0.69)      31.3
4. Social support for health
 I can get access to several people who understand and … 343 0 3 3.03 (0.61) 0.3 16.6 63.3 19.8 16.9 (15.8–23.2)
 When I feel ill, the people around me really understand 343 0 3 2.99 (0.58) 0.9 14.6 69.1 15.5 15.5 (12.8–21.6)
 If I need help, I have plenty of people I can rely on. 343 0 3 2.94 (0.73) 3.2 20.1 56.6 20.1 23.3 (20.8–32.2)
 I have at least one person who can come to medical 343 0 3 3.15 (0.63) 1.5 9.3 62.4 26.8 10.8 (9.7–18.1)
 I have strong support from family or friends. 343 0 3 3.13 (0.62) 1.5 9.0 65.0 24.5 10.5 (8.8–16.9)
     3.05 (0.63)      15.4
5. Appraisal of health information
 I compare health information from different sources 343 0 3 2.73 (0.67) 2.9 30.6 56.6 9.9 33.5 (28.4–40.8)
 When I see new information about health, I check up 343 0 3 2.64 (0.69) 5.5 31.8 55.7 7.0 37.3 (32.7–45.7)
 I always compare health information from different sources 343 0 3 2.62 (0.69) 4.7 35.6 52.8 7.0 40.3 (34.9–48.0)
 I know how to find out if the health information I receive is 343 0 3 2.60 (0.69) 6.4 32.4 55.7 5.5 38.8 (34.0–47.3)
 I ask healthcare providers about the quality of the 343 0 3 2.70 (0.71) 5.0 29.7 55.4 9.9 34.7 (31.6–44.1)
     2.66 (0.69)      36.9
6. Ability to actively engage with healthcare providers
 Make sure that healthcare providers understand your … 343 0 4 3.39 (0.88) 2.6 12.0 35.3 43.7 6.4 49.9 (44.6–62.7)
 Feel able to discuss your health concerns with a … 343 0 4 3.39 (0.92) 3.2 13.1 32.4 43.7 7.6 48.7 (43.1–61.7)
 Have good discussions about your health with doctors 343 0 3 3.27 (0.90) 2.6 15.7 40.5 34.4 6.7 58.8 (53.2–72.2)
 Discuss things with healthcare providers until you understand … 343 0 3 3.31 (0.89) 4.1 11.1 40.2 39.1 5.5 55.4 (49.8–68.3)
 Ask healthcare providers questions to get the 343 0 4 3.47 (0.84) 1.2 11.1 35.6 44.0 8.2 47.9 (43.3–60.0)
     3.37 (0.89)       52.1
7. Navigating the healthcare system
 Find the right healthcare 343 0 4 3.34 (0.93) 2.6 19.0 25.4 47.8 5.2 47.0 (42.0–61.3)
 Get to see the healthcare providers I need to 343 0 3 2.95 (1.12) 11.4 23.6 31.2 26.5 7.3 66.2 (57.5–80.7)
 decide which healthcare provider you need to see 343 0 3 3.32 (0.87) 1.7 15.5 38.5 37.9 6.4 55.7 (49.1–67.0)
 Make sure you find the right place to get the health … 343 0 4 3.47 (0.84) 0.9 12.5 32.9 45.8 7.9 46.3 (40.3–57.5)
 Find out what healthcare services you are entitled to 343 0 3 2.88 (1.10) 12.5 20.7 36.7 25.9 4.1 69.9 (59.9–82.5)
 Work out what is the best care for you 343 0 3 3.39 (0.92) 2.3 14.9 33.2 40.8 8.7 50.4 (46.1–64.0)
     3.23 (0.96)       55.9
8. Ability to find good health information
 Find information about health problems 343 0 3 3.36 (0.91) 3.8 11.4 37.6 39.9 7.3 52.8 (45.7–64.7)
 Find health information from several different places 343 0 3 3.30 (0.96) 2.6 18.1 35.3 35.0 9.0 56.0 (49.0–68.5)
 Get information about health so you are up to date … 343 0 3 3.08 (0.98) 5.0 23.3 37.3 28.0 6.4 65.6 (57.0–78.2)
 Get health information in words you understand 343 0 4 3.50 (0.82) 0.9 11.7 31.5 49.0 7.0 44.1 (38.3–55.7)
 Get health information by yourself 343 0 4 3.47 (0.76) 0.3 9.9 37.6 46.6 5.5 47.8 (41.9–57.7)
     3.34 (0.89)       53.3
9. Understanding health information well enough to know what to do
 Confidently fill medical forms in the correct way 343 0 4 3.53 (0.91) 3.2 7.6 34.1 43.4 11.7 44.9 (38.8–55.9)
 Accurately follow the instructions from healthcare providers 343 0 4 3.78 (0.83) 0.6 6.7 24.2 51.3 17.2 31.5 (26.2–41.2)
 Read and understand written health information 343 0 3 3.36 (0.93) 3.2 14.3 33.8 40.8 7.9 51.3 (43.6–62.7)
 Read and understand all the information on medication labels 343 0 3 3.30 (0.87) 3.2 13.1 38.5 40.5 4.7 54.8 (48.2–67.1)
 Understand what healthcare providers are asking you to do 343 0 4 3.76 (0.79) 0.6 5.8 24.8 54.2 14.6 31.2 (28.4–42.5)
     3.55 (0.87)       42.7