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Table 3 Factors associated with immunization defaulters (N = 1015)

From: Sociodemographic and health care factors in determining immunization defaulters among preschool children in Petaling District, Selangor: a cross-sectional study in Malaysia

Socio-demographic characteristics Defaulter n (%) NonDefaulter n (%) p value
Mother’s age (years)
 20 to 29 25 (23.4) 82 (76.6) < 0.0001*
 30 to 39 158 (18.8) 684 (81.2)  
 40 and above 27 (40.9) 39 (59.1)  
Ethnicity
 Malay 115 (16.6) 578 (83.4) < 0.0001*
 Non-Malay 95 (29.5) 227 (70.5)  
Religion
 Muslim 124 (17.5) 583 (82.5) < 0.0001*
 Non-Muslim 86 (27.9) 222 (72.1)  
Marital status
 Married 197 (19.7) 802 (80.3) < 0.0001*+
 Single/divorcee/widow 13 (81.3) 3 (18.8)  
Educational level
 Diploma and below 47 (43.5) 61 (56.5) < 0.0001*
 Degree and above 163 (18.0) 744 (82.0)  
Working status
 Working 175 (19.4) 727 (80.6) 0.004*
 Not-working 35 (31.0) 78 (69.9)  
Family composition
 5 and below 168 (18.8) 726 (81.2) < 0.0001*
 Above 5 42 (34.7) 79 (65.3)  
Number of children
 1 to 2 129 (17.6) 605 (82.4) < 0.0001*
 3 to 4 72 (27.6) 189 (72.4)  
 5 or higher 9 (45.0) 11 (55.0)  
Child’s age
 2 years and below 56 (26.9) 152 (73.1) 0.013*
 Above 2 years 154 (19.1) 653 (80.9)  
Child’s gender
 Male 116 (23.5) 378 (76.5) 0.032*
 Female 94 (18.0) 427 (82.0)  
Child’s birth order
 First born 52 (14.5) 307 (85.5) < 0.0001*
 Non-first born 158 (24.1) 498 (75.9)  
Place of immunization
 Government 102 (17.9) 468 (82.1) 0.042*
 Private 84 (24.7) 256 (75.3)  
 Mixed 24 (22.9) 81 (77.1)  
Distance to health facility (km)
 1 to 5 98 (16.9) 482 (83.1) 0.001*
 More than 5 112 (25.7) 323 (74.3)  
Travelling time to health facility (minutes)
 Less than 15 63 (13.7) 398 (86.3) < 0.0001*
 15 to 29 96 (25.4) 282 (74.6)  
 30 and above 51 (29.0) 125 (71.0)  
Waiting time (minutes)
 Less than 60 83 (23.9) 265 (76.1) 0.199
 60–119 63 (19.1) 266 (80.9)  
 120 and above 64 (18.9) 274 (81.1)  
Delayed immunization schedule
 Yes 84 (40.0) 126 (60.0) < 0.0001*
 No 126 (15.7) 679 (84.3)  
  1. *Significant at p value < 0.05