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Table 4 Distribution of cholera cases by epidemiological wave, Nigeria, 2018

From: Descriptive epidemiology of cholera outbreak in Nigeria, January–November, 2018: implications for the global roadmap strategy

Characteristic Epidemiological wave
First wave Cases (%) Second wave Cases (%) Third wave Cases (%) Fourth wave Cases (%) Total Cases (%)
Age (years)
  < 5 386 (34.50) 4551 (25.96) 1422 (19.08) 3899 (21.79) 10,258 (23.32)
  ≥ 5 731 (65.33) 12,955 (73.91) 5744 (77.06) 12,947 (72.35) 32,377 (73.59)
 Missing 2 (0.18) 22 (0.13) 288 (3.86) 1049 (5.86)† 1361 (3.09)
Sex
 Female 567 (50.67) 8782 (50.10) 3773 (50.62) 9200 (51.41) 22,322 (50.74)
 Male 552 (49.33) 8746 (49.90) 3681 (49.38) 8695 (48.59)NS 21,674 (49.26)
Geo-political zone
 South-east 3 (0.27) 188 (1.07) 14 (0.19) 0 (0.00) 205 (0.47)
 North-central 3 (0.27) 1083 (6.18) 158 (2.12) 91 (0.51) 1335 (3.03)
 North-west 239 (21.36) 3885 (22.16) 6475 (86.87) 9251 (51.70) 19,850 (45.12)
 North-east 874 (78.11) 12,372 (70.58) 807 (10.83) 8553 (47.80)† 22,606 (51.38)
Season
 Rainy 0 (0.00) 997 (5.69) 7454 (100.00) 311 (1.74) 2427 (5.52)
 Dry 1119 (100.00) 16,531 (94.31) 0 (0.00) 17,584 (98.26)† 41,569 (94.48)
Outbreak setting
 Rural 887 (79.27) 3073 (17.53) 4093 (54.91) 7448 (41.62) 15,501 (35.23)
 Peri-urban 53 (4.74) 918 (5.24) 1333 (17.88) 3637 (20.32) 5941 (13.50)
 Urban 146 (13.05) 13,464 (76.81) 1985 (26.63) 6482 (36.22) 22,077 (50.18)
 Missing 33 (2.95) 73 (0.42) 43 (0.58) 328 (1.83)† 477 (1.08)
Location care was sought
 Primary healthcare centre 52 (4.65) 656 (3.74) 2118 (28.41) 5638 (31.51) 8464 (19.24)
 Secondary hospital 7 (0.63) 5219 (29.78) 390 (5.23) 678 (3.79) 6294 (14.31)
 Tertiary hospital 1 (0.09) 8 (0.05) 14 (0.19) 35 (0.20) 58 (0.13)
 Private clinic 0 (0.00) 107 (0.61) 29 (0.39) 7 (0.04) 143 (0.33)
 Cholera treatment centre* 0 (0.00) 19 (0.11) 28 (0.38) 683 (3.82) 730 (1.66)
 Home 0 (0.00) 5 (0.03) 3 (0.04) 1 (0.01) 9 (0.02)
 Missing 1059 (94.64) 11,514 (65.69) 4872 (65.36) 10,853 (60.65)† 28,298 (64.32)
Time to health seeking
 Same day 862 (77.03) 8118 (46.31) 4691 (62.93) 13,799 (77.11) 27,470 (62.44)
 1–2 days 50 (4.47) 6597 (37.64) 1622 (21.76) 1890 (10.56) 10,159 (23.09)
  > 2 days 62 (5.54) 1252 (7.14) 216 (2.90) 165 (0.92) 1695 (3.85)
 Missing 145 (12.96) 1561 (8.91) 925 (12.41) 2041 (11.41)† 4672 (10.62)
Hospitalised
 No 53 (4.74) 4418 (25.21) 334 (4.48) 1291 (7.21) 6096 (13.86)
 Yes 81 (7.24) 8884 (50.68) 2073 (27.81) 9186 (51.33) 20,224 (45.97)
 Missing 985 (88.03) 4226 (24.11) 5047 (67.71) 7418 (41.45)† 17,676 (40.18)
Clinical outcome
 Alive 1107 (98.93) 17,295 (98.67) 7158 (96.03) 17,600 (98.35) 43,160 (98.10)
 Dead 12 (1.07) 233 (1.33) 296 (3.97) 295 (1.65)† 836 (1.90)
  1. * Including Internally Displaced Persons’ camps
  2. p-value < 0.001; NS (Not Significant) =0.106; p-values cover the four epidemic waves