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Table 4 Social support and suicide risk. Support perceived, solicited, received, and unmet support needs

From: Risk of suicide in households threatened with eviction: the role of banks and social support

  Suicide risk
Men
n (%)
Women
n (%)
Total
n (%)
No Yes Total p No Yes Total p No Yes Total p
Support perceived (Duke’s-UNC scale)
 High 33 (78.6%) 27 (71.1%) 60 (75%)   46 (74.2%) 23 (43.4%) 69 (60%)   79 (76%) 50 (54.9%) 129 (66.2%)  
 Low 9 (21.4%) 11 (28.9%) 20 (25.0%)   16 (25.8%) 30 (56.6%) 46 (40%) *** 25 (24%) 41 (45.1%) 66 (33.8%) **
Source of support soliciteda
 Formal support networks
  No 28 (66.7%) 16 (42.1%) 44 (55%)   33 (53.2%) 20 (37.7%) 53 (46.1%)   61 (58.7%) 36 (39.6%) 97 (49.7%)  
  Yes 14 (33.3%) 22 (57.9%) 36 (45.0%) * 29 (46.8%) 33 (63.%) 62 (53.9%) 43 (41.3%) 55 (60.4%) 98 (50.3%) **
 Informal support networks
  No 32 (76.2%) 26 (68.4%) 58 (72.5%)   42 (67.7%) 32 (60.4%) 74 (64.3%)   74 (71.4%) 58 (63.7%) 132 (67.7%)  
  Yes 10 (23.8%) 12 (31.6%) 22 (27.5%)   20 (32,3%) 21 (39.6%) 41 (35.7%)   30 (28.8%) 33 (36.3%) 63 (32.3%)  
 Family/friends
  No 12 (28.6%) 20 (52.6%) 32 (40.0%)   25 (40.3%) 17 (32.1%) 42 (36.5%)   37 (35.6%) 37 (40.7%) 74 (37.9%)  
  Yes 30 (71.4%) 18 (47.4%) 48 (60.0%) * 37 (59.7%) 36 (67.9%) 73 (63.5%)   67 (64.4%) 54 (59.3%) 121 (62.1%)  
Source of support receivedb
 Formal support networks
  No 3 (21.4%) 7 (31.8%) 10 (27.8%)   14 (48.3%) 11 (33.3%) 25 (40.3%)   17 (39.5%) 18 (32.7%) 35 (35.7%)  
  Yes 11 (78.6%) 15 (68.2%) 26 (72.2%)   15 (51.7%) 22 (66.7%) 37 (59.7%)   26 (60.5%) 37 (67.3%) 63 (64.3%)  
 Informal support networks
  No 0 (0.0%) 1 (8.3%) 1 (4.5%)   9 (45.0%) 2 (9.5%) 11 (26.8%)   9 (30.0%) 3 (9.1%) 12 (19.0%)  
  Yes 10 (100%) 11 (91.7%) 21 (95.5%)   11 (55,0%) 19 (90.5%) 30 (73.2%) ** 21 (70%) 30 (90.9%) 51 (81.0%) *
 Family/friends
  No 1 (3.3%) 2 (11.1%) 3 (6.3%)   5 (13.5%) 8 (22.2%) 13 (17.8%)   6 (9.0%) 10 (18.5%) 16 (13.2%)  
  Yes 29 (96.7%) 16 (88.9%) 45 (93.8%)   32 (86.5%) 28 (77.8%) 60 (82.2%)   61 (91.0%) 44 (81.5%) 105 (86.8%)  
Type of help received, regardless the support network
 Material help
  No 14 (34.0%) 15 (37.5%) 29 (35.4%)   25 (37.9%) 14 (25.5%) 39 (32.2%)   39 (36.1%) 29 (30.5%) 68 (33.5%)  
  Yes 28 (66.7%) 25 (62.5%) 53 (64.6%)   41 (62.1%) 41 (74.5%) 82 (67.8%)   69 (63.9%) 66 (69.5%) 135 (66.5%)  
 Emotional help
  No 16 (38.1%) 28 (70.0%) 44 (53.7%)   32 (48.5%) 24 (44.4%) 56 (46.7%)   48 (44.4%) 52 (55.3%) 100 (49.5%)  
  Yes 26 (61.9%) 12 (30.0%) 38 (46.3%) ** 34 (51.5%) 30 (55.6%) 64 (53.3%)   60 (55.6%) 42 (44.7%) 102 (50.5%)  
 Legal help
  No 33 (79.6%) 33 (82.5%) 66 (80.5%)   48 (72.7%) 47 (87.0%) 95 (79.2%)   81 (75.0%) 80 (85.1%) 161 (79.7%)  
  Yes 9 (21.4%) 7 (17.5%) 16 (19.5%)   18 (27.3%) 7 (13.0%) 25 (20.8%)   27 (25.0%) 14 (14.9%) 41 (20.3%)  
Amount of unmet support needs (up to 3)
 None 1 (2.4%) 0 (0%) 1 (1.3%)   8 (12.9%) 4 (7.5%) 12 (10.4%)   9 (8.7%) 4 (4.4%) 13 (6.7%)  
 1 19 (45.2%) 14 (36.8%) 33 (41.3%)   26 (41.9%) 14 (26.4%) 40 (34.8%)   45 (43.3%) 28 (30.8%) 73 (37.4%)  
 2 14 (33.3%) 10 (26.3%) 24 (30.0%)   22 (35.5%) 14 (26.4%) 36 (31.3%)   36 (34.6%) 24 (26.4%) 60 (30.8%)  
 3 8 (19.0%) 14 (36.8%) 22 (27.5%)   6 (9.7%) 21 (39.6%) 27 (23.5%) ** 14 (13.5%) 35 (38.5%) 49 (25.1%) ***
Type of unmet support needs.
 Seeking an alternative house
  Not selected 37 (88.1%) 33 (86.8%) 70 (87.5%)   59 (95.2%) 47 (88.7%) 106 (92.2%)   96 (92.3%) 80 (87.9%) 176 (90.3%)  
  Selected 5 (11.9%) 5 (13.2%) 10 (12.5%)   3 (4.8%) 6 (11.3%) 9 (7.8%)   8 (7.7%) 11 (12.1%) 19 (9.7%)  
 Psychological help
  Not selected 32 (57.9%) 24 (42.1%) 54 (100%)   45 (72.5%) 28 (52.8%) 73 (63.5%)   77 (74.0%) 50 (54.9%) 127 (65.1%)  
  Selected 10 (23.8%) 16 (64.0%) 26 (32,5%) 17 (27.4%) 25 (47.2%) 42 (36.5%) * 27 (26.0%) 41 (59.4%) 68 (34.6%) **
 Emotional help
  Not selected 34 (81.0%) 24 (63.2%) 58 (72.5%)   49 (79.0%) 29 (54.7%) 78 (67.8%)   83 (79.8%) 53 (58.2%) 136 (69.7%)  
  Selected 8 (19.0%) 14 (36.8%) 22 (27.5%) 13 (21.0%) 24 (45.3%) 37 (32.2%) ** 21 (20.2%) 38 (41.8%) 59 (30.3%) ***
Better health and social care support
 No 36 (85.7%) 32 (84.2%) 68 (85.0%)   57 (91.9%) 46 (86.8%) 103 (89.6%)   80 (59.7%) 54 (40.3%) 134 (84.8%)  
 Yes 6 (14.3%) 6 (15.8%) 12 (15.0%)   5 (8.1%) 7 (13.2%) 12 (10.4%)   11 (10.6%) 13 (14.3%) 24 (12.3%)  
 Legal help
 No 26 (61.9%) 26 (68.1%) 52 (65.0%)   47 (75.8%) 40 (75.5%) 87 (75.7%)   73 (70.2%) 66 (72.5%) 139 (71.3%)  
 Yes 16 (38.1%) 12 (31.6%) 28 (35.0%)   15 (24.2%) 13 (24.5%) 28 (24.3%)   31 (29.8%) 25 (27.5%) 56 (28.7%)  
Negotiation with banks
 No 22 (52.4%) 21 (55.3%) 43 (53.8%)   38 (61.3%) 30 (56.6%) 68 (59.1%)   60 (57.7%) 51 (56.0%) 111 (56.9%)  
 Yes 20 (47.6%) 17 (44.7%) 37 (46.3%)   24 (38.7%) 23 (43.4%) 47 (40.9%)   44 (42.3%) 40 (44.0%) 84 (43.1%)  
  1. †p < .10 *p < .05 **p < .01 ***p < .001
  2. a‘To whom did you solicit support?’
  3. b‘Among solicited support networks, from whom did you receive support?’