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Table 2 Factors associated with neonatal, post-neonatal, infant, child and under-five mortalities in Tanzania, 2004–2016

From: Determinants of trends in neonatal, post-neonatal, infant, child and under-five mortalities in Tanzania from 2004 to 2016

  Neonatal
(0–28 days)
Post-neonatal
(1–11 months)
Infant
(0–11 months)
Child
(12–59 months)
Under-five
(0–59 months)
Variables AHR (95%CI) AHR (95%CI) AHR (95%CI) AHR (95%CI) AHR (95%CI)
Year of survey
 2004–2005 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 2010 0.79 (0.61–1.02) 0.65 (0.51–0.84) 0.71 (0.59–0.85) 0.57 (0.43–0.76) 0.69 (0.59–0.80)
 2015–2016 0.75 (0.59–0.95) 0.47 (0.36–0.61) 0.62 (0.52―0.74) 0.50 (0.37–0.68) 0.60 (0.51–0.70)
Residence type
 Urban Ref   Ref Ref Ref
 Rural 0.61 (0.48–0.78)   0.80 (0.66―0.96) 0.55 (0.38–0.81) 0.79 (0.67–0.93)
Socio-demographic factor      
Household wealth index
 Rich Ref
 Middle 2.03 (1.19–3.46)
 Poor 2.18 (1.25–3.81)
Mother’s education
 Secondary or higher Ref Ref
 Primary 2.47 (1.21–5.07) 1.38 (1.06–1.80)
 No education 2.68 (1.27–5.67) 1.32 (0.99–1.77)
Mother’s age (Years)
 30―39 Ref Ref Ref
  < 20 3.30 (2.07–5.26) 6.50 (3.39–12.5) 4.50 (3.03–6.68)
 20―29 0.97 (0.72–1.32) 1.93 (1.39–2.68) 1.34 (1.05–1.71)   
 40―49 0.76 (0.53–1.09) 0.98 (0.65–1.49) 0.88 (0.66–1.16)   
Wanted pregnancy at the time
 Wanted then Ref Ref
 Wanted later 0.71 (0.51–0.99) 0.78 (0.66–0.91)
 Unwanted 1.32 (0.71–2.49) 0.89 (0.63–1.26)
Father’s education+
 Secondary or higher Ref
 Primary 1.13 (0.77–1.65)
 No education 1.53 (1.02–2.29)
Birth rank and birth interval+
 2 or 3 child, interval > 2 Ref Ref Ref   Ref
 First child 1.45 (1.09–1.92) 0.82 (0.59–1.15) 1.10 (0.89―1.35)   1.39 (1.18–1.63)
 2 or 3 child, interval ≤ 2 1.42 (0.97–2.08) 1.19 (0.78–1.80) 1.27 (0.98―1.64)   1.43 (1.14–1.79)
 4 or more child, interval > 2 1.08 (0.77–1.53) 1.64 (1.14–2.36) 1.28 (0.98―1.67)   1.04 (0.88–1.24)
 4 or more child, interval ≤ 2 1.91 (1.30–2.79) 2.03 (1.33–3.12) 1.84 (1.37―2.47)   1.58 (1.27–1.98)
Child sex
 Female Ref Ref Ref
 Male 1.59 (1.29–1.96) 1.22 (1.05–1.42) 1.21 (1.07–1.37)
Mother’s perceived baby size+
 Average or larger Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Small or very small 2.73 (2.11–3.52) 1.43 (1.04–1.98) 2.00 (1.63–2.45) 1.90 (1.59–2.27)
Mode of delivery+
 Non-caesarean Ref Ref Ref
 Caesarean section 1.94 (1.34–2.80) 1.82 (1.14–2.91) 1.84 (1.38–2.46)
  1. AHR Adjusted hazard ratios; 95% CI: 95% Confidence interval
  2. Variables adjusted for: place of residence, wealth index, mother’s (religion, education, age, body mass index, work status and desire for pregnancy), father’s education, child’s (sex, birth place, body size, mode of delivery, delivery assistance, birth order and birth
  3. Interval). Multiple births were excluded from the analysis
  4. Caesarean section is a combination of both elective and emergency caesareans; − variables that were not statistically significant