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Table 1 Distribution of all childhood mortality rates with 95% confidence interval (CI), TDHS 2004–2016

From: Determinants of trends in neonatal, post-neonatal, infant, child and under-five mortalities in Tanzania from 2004 to 2016

Variables NMR PMR IMR CMR U5MR
Community level factor
 Residence type
  Urban 33 (29 ― 38) 18 (14 ― 21) 51 (45 ― 57) 17 (13 ―20) 68 (61 ― 74)
  Rural 21 (19 ― 23) 23 (21 ― 25) 44 (41 ― 47) 15 (14 ―17) 59 (56 ― 63)
Socioeconomic level factor
 Household wealth index
  Rich 31 (25 ― 36) 19 (15 ― 23) 50 (43 ― 57) 10 (7 ― 13) 60 (53 ― 68)
  Middle 24 (21 ― 27) 21 (18 ― 24) 45 (41 ― 49) 17 (14 ―19) 62 (57 ― 67)
  Poor 21 (19 ― 24) 23 (20 ― 26) 44 (40 ― 48) 16 (14 ―19) 61 (56 ― 65)
 Mother’s education
  Secondary or higher 28 (21 ― 35) 12 (7 ― 16) 41 (32 ― 49) 5 (2 ― 8) 45 (36 ― 54)
  Primary 25 (23 ― 28) 22 (19 ― 24) 47 (44 ― 50) 16 (14 ―18) 63 (59 ― 67)
  No education 18 (15 ― 22) 26 (22 ― 30) 44 (39 ― 49) 18 (15 ―22) 62 (56 ― 68)
 Mother’s working status
  Working 23 (21 ― 25) 23 (21 ― 26) 46 (43 ― 49) 16 (14 ―18) 62 (59 ― 66)
  Not working 28 (23 ― 33) 15 (11 ― 19) 43 (37 ― 49) 13 (10 ―17) 56 (49 ― 63)
 Father’s education
  Secondary or higher 31 (24 ― 38) 15 (10 ― 19) 46 (38 ― 54) 8 (4 ― 11) 53 (45 ― 63)
  Primary 22 (20 ― 25) 21 (19 ― 23) 44 (40 ― 47) 18 (16 ―20) 61 (57 ― 65)
  No education 20 (15 ― 24) 29 (24 ― 34) 49 (42 ― 55) 14 (10 ―17) 62 (54 ― 70)
Individual level factor
 Mother’s age (Years)
  30―39 24 (21 ― 27) 20 (17 ― 23) 44 (40 ― 48) 15 (13 ―18) 59 (54 ― 64)
   < 20 37 (28 ― 47) 18 (11 ― 24) 55 (43 ― 66) 11 (6 ― 16) 66 (53 ― 78)
  20―29 23 (20 ― 25) 23 (20 ― 25) 45 (42 ― 49) 16 (14 ―18) 61 (57 ― 65)
  40―49 21 (15 ― 27) 26 (19 ― 32) 47 (38 ― 56) 18 (13 ―24) 65 (54 ― 75)
 Mother’s body mass index (MBMI, kg/m2)
  MBMI > 18.5 24 (22 ― 26) 22 (20 ― 24) 46 (43 ― 48) 16 (14 ―17) 61 (58 ― 64)
  MBMI ≤18,5 23 (16 ― 30) 19 (13 ― 25) 43 (33 ― 52) 16 (11 ―22) 58 (48 ― 69)
 Wanted pregnancy at the time
  Wanted then 24 (22 ― 27) 23 (21 ― 26) 48 (45 ― 51) 16 (14 ―18) 64 (60 ― 67)
  Wanted later 20 (17 ― 24) 13 (10 ― 16) 34 (29 ― 38) 15 (12 ―18) 48 (42 ― 54)
  No more 24 (15 ― 34) 22 (13 ― 30) 46 (34 ― 59) 9 (3 ― 15) 55 (41 ― 69)
 Birth order
  Second or third child 36 (30 ― 41) 24 (19 ― 30) 60 (52 ― 68) 33 (24 ― 41) 91 (81 ― 101)
  Fourth or more 20 (16 ― 24) 24 (20 ― 28) 44 (39 ― 49) 33 (26 ― 40) 75 (68 ― 83)
 Birth interval
  Interval ≤ 24 months 30 (23 ― 37) 31 (24 ― 38) 61 (50 ― 71) 40 (28 ― 51) 98 (82 ― 114)
  Interval > 24 months 18 (15 ― 21) 23 (20 ― 26) 41 (38 ― 45) 33 (27 ― 39) 73 (66 ― 80)
 Birth order and birth interval
  2nd or 3rd child, interval > 2 18 (15 ― 22) 20 (16 ― 23) 38 (34 ― 43) 15 (12 ―18) 53 (48 ― 59)
  First child 35 (31 ― 40) 21 (18 ― 25) 57 (51 ― 63) 15 (12 ―18) 72 (65 ― 79)
  2nd or 3rd child, interval ≤ 2 26 (19 ― 34) 25 (18 ― 33) 52 (42 ― 62) 17 (12 ―24) 69 (58 ― 81)
  4th or more child, interval > 2 18 (15 ― 21) 21 (18 ― 24) 39 (34 ― 43) 15 (13 ―18) 54 (49 ― 59)
  4th or more child, interval ≤ 2 32 (25 ― 39) 29 (22 ― 36) 61 (51 ― 71) 17 (12 ―23) 78 (67 ― 89)
 Sex
  Female 18 (16 ― 21) 22 (20 ― 25) 41 (37 ― 44) 14 (12 ―17) 55 (51 ― 59)
  Male 29 (26 ― 32) 21 (19 ― 24) 50 (46 ― 54) 17 (14 ―19) 67 (62 ― 71)
 Mother’s perceived baby size at birth
  Average or larger 20 (18 ― 22) 21 (19 ― 23) 41 (38 ― 43) 15 (14 ―17) 56 (53 ― 59)
  Small or very small 57 (47 ― 67) 26 (20 ― 33) 83 (72 ― 95) 20 (15 ―26) 104(90―117)
Health service factor
 Delivery assistance
  Health professional 27 (23 ― 31) 23 (19 ― 26) 49 (45 ― 54) 16 (14 ―19) 66 (60 ― 72)
  Non-health professional 22 (19 ― 24) 21 (19 ― 23) 43 (39 ― 46) 15 (13 ―17) 57 (53 ― 62)
 Mode of delivery
  Non-caesarean 23 (21 ― 25) 21 (20 ― 23) 44 (42 ― 47) 16 (14 ―18) 60 (57 ― 63)
  Caesarean section 48 (35 ― 61) 24 (15 ― 33) 71 (55 ― 86) 6 (2 ― 11) 78 (62 ― 94)
 Place of delivery
  Health facility 28 (24 ― 33) 18 (15 ― 22) 47 (41 ― 52) 14 (11 ―17) 61 (54 ― 67)
  Home 20 (17 ― 22) 23 (20 ― 26) 42 (39 ― 46) 17 (15 ―20) 60 (55 ― 64)