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Table 5 Analyses for repeated high systolic and diastolic blood pressure according to maternal and child characteristics

From: Repeated high blood pressure at 6 and 11 years at the Pelotas 2004 birth cohort study

Characteristics Repeated High Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure
Crude OR (95% CI) P * Adjusted OR (95% CI) P *
Sex    0.440    0.790
 Male 1.00   1.00  
 Female 0.78 (0.42–1.47)   0.91 (0.45–1.84)  
Skin color    0.201    0.180
 White 1.00   1.00  
 Non-white 1.52 (0.81–2.85)   1.54 (0.82–2.91)  
Gestational diabetes    0.197    0.198
 No 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 2.41 (0.73–7.96)   2.20 (0.66–7.31)  
HBP in pregnancy    0.613    0.686
 No 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 1.20 (0.60–2.42)   1.16 (0.56–2.39)  
Mothers’ age at childbirth    0.177    0.159
 ≤ 20 1.00   1.00  
 21–25 1.25 (0.43–3.61)   1.28 (0.44–3.73)  
 26–30 2.60 (0.99–6.81)   2.71 (1.03–7.13)  
 > 30 1.73 (0.65–4.63)   1.79 (0.67–4.83)  
Family history hypertension   0.748    0.703
 None 1.00   1.00  
 From mother 0.94 (0.32–2.71)   0.83 (0.27–2.61)  
 From father 1.05 (0.36–3.05)   1.01 (0.34–3.01)  
 From both 2.49 (0.58–10.73)   2.36 (0.49–11.35)  
Household income (quintiles)    0.252    0.352
 1 (poorest) 0.61 (0.25–1.47)   0.63 (0.24–1.63)  
 2 0.50 (0.20–1.25)   0.50 (019–1.32)  
 3 0.51 (0.20–1.28)   0.56 (0.21–1.46)  
 4 0.33 (0.12–0.94)   0.36 (0.13–1.03)  
 5 (wealthiest) 1.00   1.00   
Smoking during pregnancy    0.935    0.939
 No 1.00   1.00   
 Yes 1.03 (0.51–2.07)   1.03 (0.44–2.41)  
Birth weight    0.741    0.319
 ≥ 2500 g 1.00   1.00  
 < 2500 g 1.20 (0.42–3.39)   0.51 (0.13–1.92)  
Weight-for-gestational age    0.346    0.355
 Small 1.75 (0.80–3.85)   1.67 (0.76–3.69)  
 Adequate 1.00   1.00  
 Large 0.73 (0.17–3.05)   0.68 (0.16–2.89)  
Gestational age (weeks)    0.259    0.186
 < 34 1.24 (0.17–9.19)   1.28 (0.17–9.56)  
 34–36 2.02 (0.92–4.44)   2.09 (0.95–4.62)  
 ≥ 37 1.00   1.00  
Physical activity at 11 years of age    0.773    0.380
 Active 1.00   1.00  
 No Active 1.11 (0.54–2.30)   1.40 (0.66–2.96)  
Sodium intake (mg) (quintiles)    0.713    0.842
 1 (lowest) 1.00   1.00  
 2 0.97 (0.38–2.45)   1.15 (0.45–2.96)  
 3 1.08 (0.44–2.68)   1.12 (0.43–2.93)  
 4 0.54 (0.18–1.63)   0.58 (017–1.98)  
 5 (highest) 0.76 (0.28–2.05)   0.95 (0.30–3.01)  
Weekly consumption of chips    0.271    0.249
 None 1.00   1.00  
 Up to 1 package 0.56 (0.24–1.33)   0.57 (0.24–1.38)  
 2 packages 0.33 (0.11–1.00)   0.32 (0.11–0.99)  
 ≥ 3 packages 0.48 (0.16–1.43)   0.47 (0.15–1.44)  
BMI-for-age (11 years old – Z score)    0.567    0.838
 Normal 1.00   1.00  
 Overweight 1.31 (0.61–2.84)   1.15 (0.48–2.77)  
 Obesity 1.47 (0.70–3.10)   1.29 (0.55–3.06)  
  1. *P-values were calculated by Wald Test to heterogeneity