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Table 3 Analyses for repeated high systolic blood pressure by maternal and child characteristics

From: Repeated high blood pressure at 6 and 11 years at the Pelotas 2004 birth cohort study

Characteristics Repeated High Systolic Blood Pressure
Crude OR (95% CI) P * Adjusted OR (95% CI) P *
Sex    0.015    0.025
 Male 1.00   1.00  
 Female 0.49 (0.28–0.88)   0.51 (0.29–0.92)  
Skin color    0.304    0.789
 White 1.00   1.00  
 Non-white 0.73 (0.39–1.35)   0.91 (0.47–1.76)  
Gestational diabetes    0.038    0.027
 No 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 3.15 (1.23–8.09)   2.92 (1.13–7.58)  
Hypertension in pregnancy    0.155    0.236
 No 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 1.55 (0.86–2.78)   1.44 (0.79–2.64)  
Maternal age at childbirth    0.818    0.866
 ≤ 20 1.00   1.00  
 21–25 0.93 (0.42–2.09)   0.88 (0.38–2.04)  
 26–30 1.01 (0.44–2.30)   0.68 (0.67–3.41)  
 > 30 1.30 (0.62–2.71)   0.89 (0.30–6.25)  
Family history hypertension    0.657    0.704
 None 1.00   1.00  
 From mother 1.04 (0.43–2.49)   0.80 (0.31–2.06)  
 From father 1.56 (0.72–3.41)   1.48 (0.66–3.31)  
 From both 1.82 (0.43–7.75)   1.32 (0.29–6.00)  
Household income (quintiles)    0.144    0.240
 1 (poorest) 0.55 (0.24–1.26)   0.59 (0.25–1.37)  
 2 0.34 (0.13–0.88)   0.37 (0.14–0.97)  
 3 0.77 (0.37–1.61)   0.79 (0.37–1.70)  
 4 0.49 (0.21–1.11)   0.51 (0.22–1.17)  
 5 (wealthiest) 1.00   1.00  
Smoking during pregnancy    0.822    0.885
 No 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 1.07 (0.59–1.96)   1.05 (0.54–2.04)  
Birth weight    0.480    0.501
 ≥ 2500 g 1.00   1.00  
 < 2500 g 1.38 (0.58–3.26)   1.44 (0.50–4.12)  
Weight-for-gestational age    0.830    0.972
 Small 1.28 (0.59–2.74)   0.93 (0.33–2.64)  
 Adequate 1.00   1.00  
 Large 1.07 (0.38–3.00)   0.89 (0.30–2.64)  
Gestational age (weeks)    0.252    0.135
 < 34 0.91 (0.12–6.70)   1.05 (0.14–7.79)  
 34–36 1.87 (0.93–3.76)   2.05 (1.01–4.16)  
 ≥ 37 1.00   1.00  
Physical activity at 11 years    0.381    0.290
 Active 1.00   1.00  
 No active 1.33 (0.69–2.54)   1.43 (0.74–2.76)  
Sodium intake (mg) (quintiles)    0.416    0.322
 1 (lowest) 1.00   1.00  
 2 1.78 (0.66–4.85)   1.80 (0.64–5.05)  
 3 2.30 (0.88–6.01)   2.63 (0.97–7.14)  
 4 1.48 (0.52–4.19)   1.90 (0.65–5.60)  
 5 (highest) 2.14 (0.81–5.67)   2.82 (0.97–8.19)  
Weekly consumption of chips    0.236    0.387
 None 1.00   1.00  
 Up to 1 package 0.80 (0.35–1.85)   1.02 (0.41–2.53)  
 2 packages 0.39 (0.14–1.12)   0.51 (0.17–1.58)  
 ≥ 3 packages 0.72 (0.27–1.95)   1.15 (0.39–3.39)  
BMI-for-age Z score (11 years old)    0.014    0.022
 Normal 1.00   1.00  
 Overweight 1.63 (0.80–3.29)   1.64 (0.81–3.31)  
 Obesity 2.57 (1.37–4.80)   2.44 (1.29–4.59)  
  1. *P-values were calculated by Wald Test to heterogeneity