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Table 4 Multilevel multivariate linear regression analysis with individual and country level predictors in 53 countries

From: Effect of national culture on BMI: a multilevel analysis of 53 countries

  Model 6
  β SE
Fixed Effect
 Intercept 23.6 0.23***
Country Level
 Log GNI-PPP/10000 0.30 0.14*
 Gini 0.06 0.02**
 Uncertainty avoidance 0.03 0.008***
 Individualism 0.03 0.01*
 Power Distance −0.01 0.009
Individual-level
 Age 0.04 0.001***
Gender
 Female Reference category
 Male 0.012 0.03
Education
 Primary school   
 Secondary school 0.19 0.03***
 College and above −0.11 0.05*
Marital Status
 Never Married Reference category
 Married 1.16 0.04***
 Single 0.74 0.04***
Household Income
 1st Quintile (Poorest) Reference category
 2nd Quintile 0.18 0.039***
 3rd Quintile 0.30 0.039***
 4th Quintile 0.38 0.039***
 5th Quintile (Wealthiest) 0.50 0.039***
Occupation Ψ
 High Reference category
 Middle −0.044 0.057
 Low −0.25 0.057***
 Elementary 0.16 0.074*
Setting Reference category
 Urban   
 Rural −0.36 0.03***
Random effect
 Country 1.08 1.04
 Residual 19.60 4.41
Fit Indices
 AIC 774,995.3
 BIC 775,250.1
 Log Likelihood −387,471.7
 Deviance 774,943.3
Model Comparison With model 0
 Chi-sq (df) 22.6(4)***
R2 With model 0
 Country Level R2 0.617
 Individual-level R2 0.040
Total R 0.11
  1. *p value≤0.05; **p value≤0.01; ***p value≤0.001; β- regression coefficient; SE- Standard Error; AIC- Akaike information criterion; BIC- Bayesian information criterion; Chisq- Chi Square test; df- Degree of freedom; ΨOccupation categories: High(Legislator, Senior Official, or Manager Professional, and Armed Forces), Middle(Technician or Associate Professional Clerk, Service or Sales Worker), Low (Agricultural or Fishery Worker, Craft or Trades Worker, Plant/Machine Operator or Assembler), and Elementary (Elementary Workers)