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Table 3 Multilevel multivariate linear regression analysis with individual and country level predictors in 53 countries

From: Effect of national culture on BMI: a multilevel analysis of 53 countries

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5
  β SE β SE β SE β SE β SE
Fixed Effect
 Intercept 23.3 0.26*** 23.3 0.24*** 23.5 0.26*** 23.5 0.26*** 23.2 0.26***
Country Level
 GNI-PPP/10000 0.51 0.14*** 0.44 0.13** 0.41 0.13** 0.45 0.13** 0.51 0.13**
 Gini 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.07 0.02** 0.06 0.02* 0.05 0.02
 UAI    0.03 0.009**       
 IDV      0.03 0.009*     
 PDI        - 0.02 0.009*   
 MAS          0.005 0.009
Individual-level
 Age 0.04 0.001*** 0.04 0.001*** 0.04 0.001*** 0.04 0.001*** 0.04 0.001***
 Gender           
 Female Reference category        
 Male 0.012 0.03 0.012 0.03 0.012 0.03 0.012 0.03 0.012 0.03
Education
 Primary school Reference category        
 Secondary school 0.19 0.03*** 0.19 0.03*** 0.19 0.03*** 0.19 0.03*** 0.19 0.03***
 College and above −0.11 0.05* −0.11 0.05* −0.11 0.05* −0.11 0.05* −0.11 0.05*
Marital Status
 Never Married Reference category        
 Married 1.16 0.04*** 1.16 0.04*** 1.16 0.04*** 1.16 0.04*** 1.16 0.04***
 Single 0.74 0.04*** 0.74 0.05*** 0.74 0.05*** 0.74 0.05*** 0.74 0.05***
Household Income
 1st Quintile (Poorest) Reference category        
 2nd Quintile 0.18 0.039*** 0.18 0.039*** 0.18 0.039*** 0.18 0.039*** 0.18 0.039***
 3rd Quintile 0.30 0.039*** 0.30 0.039*** 0.30 0.039*** 0.30 0.039*** 0.30 0.039***
 4th Quintile 0.38 0.039*** 0.38 0.039*** 0.38 0.039*** 0.38 0.039*** 0.38 0.039***
 5th Quintile (Wealthiest) 0.50 0.039*** 0.50 0.039*** 0.50 0.039*** 0.50 0.039*** 0.50 0.039***
OccupationΨ
 High Reference category        
 Middle −0.043 0.057 −0.043 0.057 −0.043 0.057 −0.04 0.057 −0.043 0.057
 Low − 0.25 0.057*** − 0.25 0.057*** − 0.25 0.057*** − 0.25 0.057*** − 0.25 0.057***
 Elementary 0.16 0.074* 0.16 0.074* 0.16 0.074* 0.16 0.074* 0.16 0.074*
Setting
 Urban Reference category        
 Rural −0.36 0.03*** −0.36 0.03*** − 0.36 0.03*** −0.36 0.03*** −0.36 0.03***
Random effect
 Country 1.8 1.34 1.5 1.23 1.54 1.23 1.62 1.27 1.77 1.33
 Residual 19.60 4.41 19.60 4.43 19.60 4.43 19.60 4.43 19.60 4.43
Fit Indices
 AIC 775,010.0 775,004.2 775,005.4 775,007.5 775,011.7
 BIC 775,225.6 775,229.6 775,230.8 775,232.9 775,237.1
 Log Likelihood − 387,483.0 −387,479.1 −387,479.7 −387,480.8 −387,482.9
 Deviance 774,966.0 774,958.2 774,959.4 774,961.5 774,965.7
Model Comparison With model 0 With model 10 With model 12   
 Chi-sq (df) 5465.3(19)*** 10.28(1)** 6.6(1)* 4.5(1)* 0.30(1)
R2
 Country Level R2 0.362 0.468 0.454 0.426 0.372
 Individual-level R2 0.040 0.040 0.040 0.040 0.040
 Total R 0.079 0.092 0.090 0.087 0.080
  1. *p value≤0.05; **p value≤0.01; ***p value≤0.001; β regression coefficient, SE Standard Error, AIC Akaike information criterion, BIC Bayesian information criterion, Chisq Chi Square test, df Degree of freedom; GNI-PPP/10000- National income; Gini- income inequality; UAI-Uncertainty Avoidance; IDV- Individualism, PDI- Power distance, MAS- Masculinity; ΨOccupation categories: High(Legislator, Senior Official, or Manager, Professional, and Armed Forces), Middle(Technician or Associate Professional, Clerk, Service or Sales Worker), Low (Agricultural or Fishery Worker, Craft or Trades Worker, Plant/machine Operator or Assembler), and Elementary (Elementary Workers)