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Table 2 Model based and design-based descriptive analysis of outcome variable (BMI) and individual-level explanatory variables in 53 countries

From: Effect of national culture on BMI: a multilevel analysis of 53 countries

  Model Based Design-based
n = 156,192 N = 770,151,380
Mean ± SD Mean ± SE
Outcome variable
 BMI 24.05 (4.92) 23.95 (0.08)
Explanatory Variables
 Age 42.33 (16.71) 41.27 (0.19)
  n (%) N (%)
Gender
 Female 71,876 (53.9) 3,861,707 (50.2)
 Male 61,389 (46.06) 3,839,769 (49.8)
 Missing values 5 (0.003) 3802 (0.0)
Education
 Primary school 53,122 (39.86) 351,559,014 (45.6)
 Secondary school 64,018 (48.08) 304,854,666 (39.6)
 College and above 15,041 (11.28) 109,509,803 (14.2)
 Missing values 1026 (0.76) 4,227,898 (0.5)
Marital Status†
 Never Married 24,270 (18.21) 156,329,916 (20.3)
 Married 74,971 (56.25) 459,772,891 (59.7)
 Widowed/Divorced 25,499 (19.13) 122,482,578 (15.9)
 Missing values 8530 (6.4) 31,565,995 (4.1)
Household Income
 1st Quintile (Poorest) 26,030 (19.53) 155,540,304 (20.2)
 2nd Quintile 26,196 (19.65) 151,537,449 (19.7)
 3rd Quintile 24,542 (18.41) 137,002,987 (17.8)
 4th Quintile 24,592 (18.45) 140,199,329 (18.2)
 5th Quintile (Wealthiest) 24,267 (18.20) 12,525,755,316.3)
 Missing values 7643(5.73) 60,613,759(7.9)
Occupation‡
 High 10,090(7.57) 56,431,105(7.3)
 Medium 18,797(14.10) 106,090,097(13.8)
 Low 31,012(23.27) 212,328,723(27.6)
 Elementary 6658(4.99) 39,368,661(5.1)
 Missing values 66,713(50.05) 355,932,795(46.2)
Setting¥
 Urban 75,102(56.35) 355,475,737(46.2)
 Rural 52,265(39.21) 386,726,171(50.2)
 Missing values 5903(4.42) 27,949,472(3.6)
  1. †All data in this variable was missing for Turkey; ‡All data in this variable was missing for Turkey and Norway; ¥ All data in this variable was missing for Australia, Netherlands, Norway and Slovenia; Design-based- probability of selection design weights; N-target population; SD- Standard Deviation; SE- Standard Error; BMI- Body Mass Index. ΨOccupation categories: High (Legislator, Senior Official, or Manager, Professional and Armed Forces), Middle (Technician or Associate Professional, Clerk, Service or Sales Worker), Low (Agricultural or fishery worker, Craft or Trades Worker, Plant/machine Operator or Assembler), and Elementary (Elementary Workers)