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Table 4 Differences in characteristics of dying facility residents by facility type within countries (N = 824)

From: Dying in long-term care facilities in Europe: the PACE epidemiological study of deceased residents in six countries

  NL N = 222 PL N = 311
N(%) N(%)
By facility typea type 1 N = 117 type 2 N = 94 type 1 N = 184 type 2 N = 127
Residency before admission to facilityb
 Own home (living alone or with family or others) 38 (43.2) 57 (73.1) 77 (42.3) 76 (60.8)
 General hospital (e.g. acute care hospital) 11 (12.5) 3 (3.8) 93 (51.1) 12 (9.6)
 Other facility 20 (22.7) 12 (15.4) 9 (4.9) 26 (20.8)
 Other residency (e.g. psychiatric or rehabilitation hospital) 19 (21.6) 6 (7.7) 3 (1.6) 11 (8.8)
P-valuec < 0.05 < 0.001
Length of stayb
 Median (min-max) number of days 710 (1–5485) 980 (1–6290) 60 (1–4438) 1007 (3–12,365)
P-valuec 0.742 < 0.001
Type of ward at time of deathb
 Ward for residents with dementia 64 (59.3) 28 (32.9) 48 (26.2) 8 (6.6)
 Ward not specifically for dementia 44 (40.7) 57 (67.1) 135 (73.8) 114 (93.4)
P-valuec < 0.05 0.160
Place of Deathb
 Facility 104 (95.4) 67 (80.7) 172 (93.5) 76 (60.3)
 Other (e.g. hospital) 5 (4.6) 16 (19.3) 12 (6.5) 50 (39.7)
P-valuec 0.053 < 0.001
Dementia (yes) dfg 83 (72.2) 43 (45.7) 119 (66.1) 88 (70.4)
P-valuec < 0.01 0.727
Stage of Dementia (based on CPS/GDSh) dfk
 Moderate or mild dementia 17 (21.8) 10 (23.3) 3 (3.6) 14 (21.2)
 Severe dementia 21 (26.9) 16 (37.2) 23 (27.4) 14 (21.2)
 Very severe or advanced dementia 40 (51.3) 17 (39.5) 58 (69.0) 38 (57.6)
P-valuec 0.415 < 0.05
Diseases at time of deathfi
 Cancerf 11 (13.1) 13 (23.6) 2 (1.2) 8 (9.9)
P-valuec 0.168 < 0.05
Diseases at time of deathfi
 Cardiovascular disease (not CVA) f 25 (29.8) 19 (34.5) 88 (51.2) 53 (65.4)
P-valuec 0.533 0.160
Multimorbiditiesf
 0–1 multimorbidities 46 (54.8) 29 (52.7) 75 (43.6) 23 (28.4)
 2 multimorbidities 22 (26.2) 15 (27.3) 71 (41.3) 31 (38.3)
 3 multimorbidities 13 (15.5) 11 (20.0) 21 (12.2) 19 (23.5)
 4 or more multimorbidities 3 (3.6) 0 (0.0) 5 (2.9) 8 (9.9)
P-valuec 0.967 < 0.05
Functional/cognitive status (BANS-S) dj
 Mean (SD) 18.3 (4.7) 16.7 (4.7) 22.9 (3.8) 20.2 (5.1)
P-valuec < 0.05 < 0.001
Global Deterioration Scale Stage 7dl 61 (52.1) 37 (40.7) 135 (80.8) 73 (62.4)
P-valuec 0.085 < 0.01
  1. Note: Only variables for which we found a significant difference between facility types in at least one country are reported in this table. Variables for which analyses were conducted but no significant differences between facility types were found are age, gender, diseases at time of death: CVA, pulmonary disease, neurological disease, renal disease, diabetes, other severe disease, CPS and clinical complications: pneumonia, febrile episode, eating or drinking problem and other clinical complication
  2. Percentages may not always add up to 100 because of rounding
  3. Missing values per country: NL: Facility type = 11, ownership = 11 size = 11, admission from = 56, length of stay = 31, type of ward dementia = 29, place of death = 30, dementia = 13, stage of dementia = 18 (83 not applicable because resident did not have dementia), diseases at time of death = 83, multimorbidities = 83
  4. BANS-S = 21 GDS7 = 14
  5. PL: Facility type = 0, ownership = 2 size = 31, admission from = 4, length of stay = 4, type of ward dementia = 6, place of death = 1, dementia = 6, stage of dementia = 63 (98 not applicable because resident did not have dementia), diseases at time of death = 58, multimorbidities = 58
  6. BANS-S = 28 GDS7 = 27
  7. aFacility type: In this table only the Netherlands and Poland are reported, since Belgium and Finland only have type 2 facilities and almost no differences between facility types were found in England and Italy. Type 1 includes facilities with 24/7 on-site physicians, nurses and care assistants, type 2 are facilities with 24/7 on-site nurses and care assistants and off-site physicians and type 3 consists of facilities with 24/7 on-site care assistants and off-site nurses and physicians
  8. bReported by administrator/manager of facility
  9. cGeneralised linear mixed model per country reporting p-value for facility type as a fixed effect, α =0.05. Significant results in bold
  10. dReported by staff member (nurse/care assistant) most involved in care
  11. fReported by treating physician (TP) For 397 out of 1384 residents no questionnaire was returned by the TP, these are not included as missing values below
  12. gWhen either the physician or the nurse (or both) considered the resident to have dementia, this was coded as yes
  13. hThe variable stage of dementia was based on the scores on the CPS and GDS, as answered by nursing staff, after selecting residents with dementia [16]
  14. iMultiple answers possible
  15. jScores on BANS-S range from 7 to 28; higher scores indicate greater severity
  16. kScores on CPS range from 0 to 6; higher scores indicate greater severity
  17. lScores on GDS range from 0 to 6; higher scores indicate greater severity