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Table 3 Clinical Characteristics of Dying Facility Residents in Six European Countries (N = 1384)

From: Dying in long-term care facilities in Europe: the PACE epidemiological study of deceased residents in six countries

  BE N = 291 NL N = 222 UK N = 91 FI N = 269 IT N = 200 PL N = 311  
N(%) N(%) N(%) N(%) N(%) N(%) P-value*
Dementia at time of death (yes)abc 183 (62.9) 135 (61.4) 53 (60.2) 222 (82.5) 154 (77.0) 207 (67.9) < 0.001
Stage of Dementia (based on CPS/GDSd) ab
 Moderate or mild dementia 27 (17.1) 29 (22.3) 13 (31.0) 43 (24.2) 14 (11.7) 17 (11.3) 0.676
 Severe dementia 48 (30.4) 41 (31.5) 11 (26.2) 57 (32.0) 40 (33.3) 37 (24.7)  
 Very severe or advanced dementia 83 (52.5) 60 (46.2) 18 (42.9) 78 (43.8) 66 (55.0) 96 (64.0)  
Diseases at time of deathbe
 Malignant cancerb 30 (15.5) 27 (18.5) 9 (42.9) 41 (19.4) 26 (17.2) 10 (4.0) < 0.001
 Severe cardiovascular diseaseb 67 (34.7) 45 (30.8) 2 (9.5) 79 (37.4) 71 (47.0) 141 (55.7) < 0.05
 Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)b 40 (20.7) 25 (17.1) 3 (14.3) 49 (23.2) 34 (22.5) 70 (27.7) 0.483
 Severe pulmonary diseaseb 33 (17.1) 17 (11.6) 3 (14.3) 17 (8.1) 40 (26.5) 18 (7.1) < 0.001
 Severe neurological disease (not dementia)b 15 (7.8) 11 (7.5) 0 (0.0) 26 (12.3) 18 (11.9) 32 (12.6) 0.381
 Severe renal diseaseb 19 (9.8) 19 (13.0) 2 (9.5) 13 (6.2) 22 (14.6) 29 (11.5) 0.420
 Severe diabetesb 11 (5.7) 17 (11.6) 1 (4.8) 16 (7.6) 18 (11.9) 33 (13.0) 0.177
 Other severe diseaseb 31 (16.1) 4 (2.7) 3 (14.3) 51 (24.2) 33 (21.9) 33 (13.0) < 0.001
Multimorbidities at time of deathb
 0–1 long-term conditions 94 (48.7) 77 (52.7) 10 (47.6) 72 (34.1) 39 (25.8) 98 (38.7) 0.268
 2 multimorbidities 54 (28.0) 40 (27.4) 8 (38.1) 68 (32.2) 52 (34.4) 102 (40.3)  
 3 multimorbidities 30 (15.5) 25 (17.1) 2 (9.5) 49 (23.2) 37 (24.5) 40 (15.8)  
 4 or more multimorbidities 15 (7.8) 4 (2.7) 1 (4.8) 22 (10.4) 23 (15.2) 13 (5.1)  
Functional/cognitive status one month before death (BANS-S)af
 Mean (SD) 18.5 (4.9) 17.7 (4.7) 17.5 (4.2) 19.6 (4.3) 21.8 (3.7) 21.9 (4.6) < 0.001
Cognitive Performance Scale one month before deathag
 (Borderline) Intact (score 0–1) 75 (28.0) 42 (20.5) 17 (23.3) 23 (9.4) 16 (9.9) 72 (11.6) < 0.01
 Mild to moderate impairment (score 2–3) 55 (20.5) 58 (28.2) 21 (28.7) 56 (22.9) 27 (16.7) 37 (15.9)  
 Moderately severe to very severe impairment (score 4–6) 138 (51.5) 105 (51.2) 35 (47.9) 165 (67.5) 118 (73.3) 169 (72.5)  
Global Deterioration Scale Stage 7 one month before deathah 155 (57.8) 104 (47.5) 40 (50.6) 111 (48.3) 124 (66.0) 208 (73.2) < 0.001
Clinical complications during last month of lifea
 Pneumoniaa 64 (24.2) 75 (37.7) 16 (21.6) 76 (31.4) 45 (25.3) 62 (21.2) < 0.01
 Febrile episode (not pneumonia) a 118 (44.2) 36 (18.4) 4 (5.4) 78 (31.1) 98 (52.4) 136 (46.6) < 0.001
 Eating or drinking problema 179 (65.3) 125 (60.4) 41 (51.9) 170 (66.4) 113 (60.8) 198 (66.4) 0.237
 Other clinical complications (e.g. stroke)a 96 (33.0) 81 (36.5) 38 (41.8) 65 (24.2) 81 (36.5) 113 (36.3) < 0.05
  1. Percentages may not always add up to 100 because of rounding
  2. Missing values: dementia = 11, stage of dementia = 187 (419 not applicable because resident did not have dementia), diseases at time of death = 12, multimorbidities = 12, BANS-S = 86 missing data on at least one item, CPS = 182 (and 18 not applicable), GDS7 = 116, clinical complications = 81
  3. Abbreviations: CPS Cognitive Performance Scale, GDS Global Deterioration Scale, BANS-S Bedford Alzheimer Nursing Severity Scale
  4. *Generalised linear mixed model reporting p-value for country as a fixed effect, α =0.05. Significant results in bold
  5. aReported by staff member (nurse/care assistant) most involved in care
  6. bReported by treating physician (TP) For 397 out of 1384 residents no questionnaire was returned by the TP, these are not included as missing values below
  7. cWhen either the physician or the nurse (or both) considered the resident to have dementia, this was coded as yes
  8. dThe variable stage of dementia was based on the scores on the CPS and GDS, as answered by nursing staff, after selecting residents with dementia [16]
  9. eMultiple answers possible
  10. fScores on BANS-S range from 7 to 28; higher scores indicate greater severity
  11. gScores on CPS range from 0 to 6; higher scores indicate greater severity
  12. hScores on GDS range from 0 to 6; higher scores indicate greater severity