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Table 2 Vaping dependence and smoking dependence measures among adult AI dual EC and cigarette users (N = 44)

From: Vaping patterns, nicotine dependence and reasons for vaping among American Indian dual users of cigarettes and electronic cigarettes

Vaping Dependence Measures % Smoking Dependence Measures %
Minutes after waking use first EC Minutes after waking use first cigarette
 5 or less 31%  5 or less 24%
 6–30 24%  6–30 31%
 31–120 24%  31–120 38%
 121+ 21%  121+ 7%
Nights per week wake to use EC Nights per week wake to smoke
 Never/less than weekly 73%  Never/less than weekly 54%
 1 to 2 12%  1 to 2 23%
 3 or more 15%  3 or more 23%
Continue using EC because hard to quit Continue to smoke because hard to quit
 Yes 44%  Yes 80%
 No 56%  No 20%
Ever have strong cravings to use EC Ever have strong cravings to smoke
 Yes 33%  Yes 84%
 No 67%  No 16%
How strong were urges to vape, past week How strong were urges to smoke in past week
 None 44%  None 0%
 Slight 34%  Slight 18%
 Moderate 10%  Moderate 25%
 Very/extremely strong 22%  Very/extremely strong 57%
Hard to keep from using EC Hard to keep from smoking
 Yes 36%  Yes 58%
 No 64%  No 42%
WHEN HAVE NOT USED [EC; tobacco] for a while OR when you tried to stop [vaping; smoking] …
Irritable because can’t use EC Irritable because can’t smoke
 Yes 32%  Yes 73%
 No 68%  No 27%
Nervous because can’t vape Nervous because can’t smoke
 Yes 32%  Yes 66%
 No 68%  No 34%
Composite Dependence Scores p-value*
Heaviness of Vaping Index [32] Mean (SD) 2.07 (1.76) Heaviness of Smoking Index [33] Mean (SD) 2.36 (1.66) .2155
PSDI-EC [32] Mean (SD) 6.42 (4.84) PSDI-smoking [32] Mean (SD) 11.02 (5.00) <.0001
  1. EC Electronic Cigarette
  2. PSDI Penn State Dependence Index
  3. Missing = 10 for Heaviness of Vaping Index, 12 for PSDI-EC, 2 for Heaviness of Smoking Index, and 3 for PSDI-smoking
  4. *Paired t-test on the differences between the vaping dependence scores and smoking dependence scores