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Table 2 Adjusted Odds Ratios (aOR) and 95%CI for factors associated with forgone medical visits or specialist treatment in the preceding 12 months for any reason. Hierarchical logistic models per period

From: The geography and economics of forgoing medical examinations or therapeutic treatments in Italy during the economic crisis

  2004–2007 2008–2012 2013–2015
aOR 95%CI p-value aOR 95%CI p-value aOR 95%CI p-value
Sex
 Males 1 <.0001 1 <.0001 1 <.0001
 Females 1.23 1.19 1.28 1.26 1.21 1.30 1.16 1.10 1.22
Age class
 16–34 1 <.0001 1 <.0001 1 <.0001
 35–49 1.27 1.20 1.35 1.38 1.30 1.46 1.74 1.59 1.89
 50–64 1.04 0.97 1.10 1.07 1.01 1.14 1.43 1.31 1.56
 65–74 0.79 0.73 0.86 0.78 0.73 0.85 1.01 0.91 1.12
 75+ 0.69 0.64 0.75 0.61 0.56 0.66 0.71 0.63 0.79
Risk of poverty*
 No 1 <.0001 1 <.0001 1 <.0001
 Yes 1.54 1.47 1.61 1.70 1.63 1.78 2.21 2.09 2.34
Educational level*
 High 1 <.0001 1 <.0001 1 <.0001
 Medium 1.10 1.05 1.16 1.29 1.23 1.35 1.53 1.45 1.63
 Low 1.19 1.13 1.26 1.29 1.22 1.36 1.62 1.51 1.75
Citizenship**
 Italian 1 <.0001 1 <.0001 1 <.0001
 Foreign national 1.61 1.44 1.80 1.85 1.71 2.01 2.19 1.98 2.42
Chronic disease or severe limitations
 No 1 <.0001 1 <.0001 1 <.0001
 Yes 1.87 1.79 1.95 1.75 1.67 1.82 2.12 1.99 2.25
Self-perceived health
 Good 1 <.0001 1 <.0001 1 <.0001
 Not good 2.55 2.43 2.67 2.85 2.72 2.99 2.66 2.50 2.84
Region
 Piemonte 1 <.0001 1 <.0001 1 <.0001
 Valle d’Aosta 0.64 0.52 0.78 0.58 0.46 0.72 1.38 1.08 1.76
 Liguria 0.85 0.74 0.98 0.98 0.86 1.12 1.54 1.29 1.83
 Lombardia 0.80 0.72 0.89 0.88 0.79 0.98 1.46 1.25 1.71
 Bolzano 0.79 0.66 0.94 0.74 0.61 0.90 0.87 0.60 1.27
 Trento 0.59 0.47 0.73 0.53 0.42 0.67 0.38 0.26 0.56
 Veneto 0.87 0.78 0.98 0.76 0.68 0.86 1.07 0.89 1.27
 Friuli-Venezia Giulia 0.64 0.55 0.74 0.84 0.74 0.96 1.40 1.17 1.68
 Emilia-Romagna 0.89 0.80 0.99 1.03 0.92 1.15 1.95 1.67 2.28
 Toscana 1.16 1.04 1.29 1.35 1.21 1.51 1.18 0.98 1.41
 Umbria 0.75 0.66 0.86 1.03 0.91 1.18 2.54 2.13 3.03
 Marche 1.15 1.03 1.29 1.43 1.28 1.60 3.46 2.97 4.02
 Lazio 1.51 1.36 1.67 1.72 1.56 1.91 3.22 2.78 3.73
 Abruzzo 1.37 1.19 1.57 2.20 1.93 2.50 3.43 2.85 4.13
 Molise 1.62 1.40 1.87 1.54 1.33 1.78 3.35 2.72 4.12
 Campania 2.08 1.88 2.31 2.23 2.02 2.47 5.24 4.52 6.07
 Puglia 2.58 2.33 2.87 3.39 3.07 3.75 8.21 7.09 9.50
 Basilicata 2.14 1.88 2.43 2.04 1.79 2.32 2.35 1.89 2.91
 Calabria 2.37 2.11 2.67 2.64 2.36 2.95 5.51 4.73 6.43
 Sicilia 1.97 1.77 2.18 2.42 2.19 2.69 3.14 2.69 3.67
 Sardegna 1.90 1.69 2.14 1.86 1.65 2.11 4.38 3.67 5.21
Educational attainment level by citizenship
 Medium vs High among Italians 1.11 1.06 1.17 < 0.01 1.31 1.26 1.38 < 0.01 1.59 1.49 1.69 <.0001
 Low vs High among Italians 1.21 1.15 1.28 1.32 1.24 1.39 1.68 1.55 1.81
 Medium vs High among foreign national 0.87 0.68 1.12 0.97 0.82 1.16 1.06 0.86 1.31
 Low vs High among foreign national 0.73 0.54 0.99 0.96 0.74 1.23 1.02 0.73 1.43
ICC (95%CI) 0.063 (0.034–0.106)   0.072 (0.040–0.126)   0.132 (0.076–0.221)  
Likelihood Ratio Test for goodness of fit < 0.0001   < 0.0001   < 0.0001  
  1. p-value trend: * < 0.05, ** < 0.01