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Table 1 Main questionnaire items, their origins and how they relate to the Flood Impact Framework (Fig. 1)

From: Rationale and methods for a cross-sectional study of mental health and wellbeing following river flooding in rural Australia, using a community-academic partnership approach

Item Origin (and scoring where relevant) Relationship to Flood Impact Framework
Socio-demographics variables:
• Age
• Gender
• Indigenous status
• Relationship status
• Education level
• Employment status
• In receipt of income support
• Farmer
• Business owner
N/A Personal characteristics, including those identifying key interest groups
Flood exposure (liveable area of home flooded; business flooded; non-liveable area of home flooded e.g. garage; suburb flooded; home of close friend or relative flooded; none of the above).
Degree of flooding: water above your head height through entire home/property; water between knee and head height (more than 50 cm) through entire home/property; water below knee-height (about 1-50 cm) through entire home/property; water in some but not all areas of home/property
Derived from the Brief Weather Disaster Trauma Exposure and Impact Screen [9] and the English National Cohort Study on Flooding & Health [22]. Impact of flooding
Evacuation:
• Did you have to evacuate your home/business?
• How much warning did you get?
Derived from the English National Cohort Study on Flooding & Health [22]. Impact of flooding
Pre-flood mitigation systems: Warning systems
Displacement:
• Because of the flood did you have to live elsewhere?
Derived from the Brief Weather Disaster Trauma Exposure and Impact Screen [9] English National Cohort Study on Flooding & Health [22]. Impact of flooding
Support at the time of the flood:
• Did support requested from Govt/Community organisations/insurance/emergency services/volunteers meet your needs?
Bespoke measure developed for the Flood Impact Framework Agency response: disaster relief
Perceptions of responses
Community & health service response: mental health & wellbeing needs
Blame:
• Are Govt/Community organisations/insurance/emergency services/volunteers to blame for distress?
Bespoke measure developed for the Flood Impact Framework Perceptions of responses: sense of blame
Previous flood experience:
• Have you ever been in heavy rain or floods in which your home, business, workplace or school was damaged?
Bespoke measure developed for the Flood Impact Framework Previous flood exposure, cumulative flood exposure
Post-traumatic growth:
• Have the severe rain and flood resulted in you being able to make any positive changes in your life?
Bespoke measure developed for the Flood Impact Framework Personal factors
Individual and community resilience:
• Personal social capital – community participation
Australian Community Participation Questionnaire [50].
Seven point agree/disagree scale
Community factors
Personal factors
• Community functioning A measure of ‘social’ (or ‘generalised’) trust from Berry et al. 2003 [51], a question from the CRACE study [52] and a bespoke measure for the Flood Impact Framework Community factors
• Personal social cohesion - connection, sense of belonging & support Two sub-scales from the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (Cohen et al. 1985 [53]) Berry 2008 [54]
Seven point agree/disagree scale
Community factors
Personal factors
• Social trust Adapted by Berry, 2008 [55] from the Organisational Trust Inventory (OTI) (Cummings & Bromiley,1996 [56]) and the World Values Survey (Inglehart et al., 2000 [57])
Seven point agree/disagree scale.
Personal factors
• Generalised reciprocity Adapted by Berry, 2008 [55] from the World Values Survey (Inglehart et al., 2000 [57])
Seven point agree/ disagree scale
Personal factors
• Trait optimism Adapted from the Life Orientation Test – Revised (LOT-R) (Scheirer et al. 1994) [58]
Seven point agree/disagree scale
Personal factors
Mental health and wellbeing outcome measures:
• Flood-specific - Still distressed about the flood
Brief Weather Disaster Trauma Exposure and Impact
Screen [9]
Are you still currently distressed about what happened during the flood?Yes/No
Mental health & wellbeing of community members and subsequent needs
• Flood-specific - Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (about the flood) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-6) [59].
A list of complaints that people sometimes express after extreme rain and flooding.
Cut-point for probable diagnosis was ≥ 14 [59]
Mental health & wellbeing of community members and subsequent needs
• Not flood-specific - Depression Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2) [60].
Cut-point for probable diagnosis was ≥ 3 [60]
Mental health & wellbeing of community members and subsequent needs
• Not flood-specific - Anxiety Generalised Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-2) [61].
Cut point for probable diagnosis was ≥ 3 [61]
Mental health & wellbeing of community members and subsequent needs
• Not flood-specific - Suicidal ideation A single suicidal ideation item from the Screening Tool for Assessing Risk of Suicide [62]
Yes/No
Mental health & wellbeing of community members and subsequent needs