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Table 1 Sociodemographic, clinical, and health seeking behavioral factors among study participants in the 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n = 1,889,712)

From: Impact of rurality on diabetes screening in the US

Covariates Had a test for high blood sugar or diabetes in the past 3 years
  n %
Age groups
 Age 18 to 24 100,689 5.3
 Age 25 to 34 189,726 10.0
 Age 35 to 44 228,777 12.1
 Age 45 to 54 317,724 16.8
 Age 55 to 64 420,192 22.2
 Age 65 or older 632,604 33.5
Sex
 Male 785,750 41.6
 Female 1,103,678 58.4
 Refused 284 0.02
Household income
 Less than $15,000 183,236 9.7
 $15,000 to < $25,000 277,192 14.7
 $25,000 to < $35,000 179,594 9.5
 $35,000 to < $50,000 231,180 12.2
 $50,000 or more 718,954 38.1
 Don’t know/Not Sure/Missing 299,556 15.9
Education
 Never attended school or only kindergarten 2567 0.1
 Elementary 50,210 2.7
 Some high school 102,724 5.4
 High school graduate 538,144 28.5
 Some college or technical school 515,485 27.3
 College graduate 672,862 35.6
 Don’t know/Not Sure/Missing 7720 0.4
Race
 White 1,440,751 76.2
 Black 149,875 7.9
 Hispanic 148,645 7.9
 Others (e.g., Asian, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, other race, multiracial) 119,579 6.3
 Don’t know/Not Sure/Missing 30,862 1.6
Marital status
 Married 987,477 52.3
 Divorced 262,439 13.9
 Widowed 246,775 13.1
 Separated 40,139 2.1
 Never married 287,411 15.2
 A member of an unmarried couple 53,181 2.8
 Don’t know/Not Sure/Missing 12,290 0.7
General health
 Excellent 324,669 17.2
 Very good 610,325 32.3
 Good 586,084 31.0
 Fair 257,366 13.6
 Poor 104,880 5.6
 Don’t know/Not Sure/Missing 2836 0.2
Body mass index (BMI) categories
 Underweight (BMI < 18.50) 30,199 1.6
 Normal Weight (18.50 < BMI < 25.00) 578,862 30.6
 Overweight (25.00 < BMI < 30.00) 637,026 33.7
 Obese (30.00 < BMI) 516,432 27.3
 Don’t know/Not Sure/Missing 127,193 6.7
High blood pressure
 Yes 1,124,597 59.5
 No 759,569 40.2
 Don’t know/Not Sure/Missing 5546 0.3
High cholesterol
 Yes 690,184 36.5
 No 958,756 50.7
 Don’t know/Not Sure/Missing 240,772 12.8
Health care coverage
 Yes 1,701,229 90.0
 No 181,308 9.6
 Don’t know/Not Sure/Missing 7175 0.4
Have personal doctor or health care provider
 Yes, only one 1,441,957 76.3
 More than one 151,065 8.0
 No 289,610 15.3
 Don’t know/Not Sure/Missing 7080 0.4
Metropolitan Status Code
 In the center city of an MSA (MSCODE 1)
(Unadjusted prevalence of high blood sugar or diabetes testing: 67.2%)
417,136 22.1
 Outside the center city of an MSA but inside the county containing the center city (MSCODE 2)
(Unadjusted prevalence of high blood sugar or diabetes testing: 66.6%)
231,483 12.3
 Inside a suburban county of the MSA (MSCODE 3)
(Unadjusted prevalence of high blood sugar or diabetes testing: 66.6%)
163,367 8.7
 In an MSA that has no center city (MSCODE 4)
(Unadjusted prevalence of high blood sugar or diabetes testing: 64.4%)
3901 0.2
 Not in an MSA (MSCODE 5)
(Unadjusted prevalence of high blood sugar or diabetes testing: 64.7%)
410,620 21.7
 Don’t know/Not Sure/Missing 663,205 35.1
  1. MSA Stands for metropolitan statistical area