Skip to main content

Table 4 Health and social adversities including maltreatment experiences

From: The British Columbia Healthy Connections Project: findings on socioeconomic disadvantage in early pregnancy

   Age Group p-value
Total
N = 739
14–19 years
N = 361
20–24 years
N = 378
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Unstable housing
 Lifetime homelessness (including currently) 333/716 (47.0) 154/351 (44.0) 179/365 (49.0)  
 Currently homeless 22/721 (3.1) 9/351 (2.6) 13/370 (3.5) 0.600
 Moved ≥3 times or homeless (past year) 385/731 (52.1) 183/357 (51.3) 202/374 (54.0) 0.503
Psychological Distress (past month)
 Moderate/severe psychological distress 235/737 (31.9) 100/360 (27.8) 135/377 (35.8) 0.024
Mental health conditionsa n = 739 n = 361 n = 378  
 Severe anxiety or depression regularly 346 (46.8) 173 (47.9) 173 (45.8) 0.608
 Diagnosed mental disorder (e.g., bipolar disorder or attention problems) 160 (21.7) 73 (20.2) 87 (23.0) 0.405
 Diagnosed developmental conditions (e.g., autism spectrum or learning disorders) 83 (11.2) 35 (9.7) 48 (12.7) 0.240
Prenatal substance use
 Any cannabis, alcohol or street drug use (past month)a 172/732 (23.5) 80/357 (22.4) 92/375 (24.5) 0.555
  Cannabis use (past month) 155/738 (21.0) 75/360 (20.8) 80/378 (21.2) 0.984
  Alcohol use (past month) 17/736 (2.3) 6/361 (1.7) 11/375 (2.9) 0.367
  Street drug use (past month) 11/736 (1.5) < 5/358 (< 2) 7/378 (1.9) 0.605
 Nicotine/cigarette use (past 48 h) 196/736 (26.6) 96/360 (26.7) 100/376 (26.6) > 0.999
 Second-hand smoke exposure (past week) 292/736 (39.7) 150/361(41.6) 142/375 (37.9) 0.344
Serious long-term physical health conditionsa n = 739 n = 361 n = 378  
 Iron-deficiency anemia 151 (20.4) 69 (19.1) 82 (21.7) 0.437
 Asthma or allergies (regular use of puffers) 139 (18.8) 64 (17.7) 75 (19.8) 0.522
 Migraines (weekly or more) 108 (14.6) 57 (15.8) 51 (13.5) 0.436
 Serious injury (head/leg) that left a disability 57 (7.7) 24 (6.6) 33 (8.7) 0.356
 Thyroid disease 21 (2.8) 6 (1.7) 15 (4.0) 0.096
 Cardiovascular disease (including high blood pressure) 13 (1.8) < 5 (< 2) 9 (2.4) 0.300
 Epilepsy or seizures (weekly or more) 13 (1.8) 7 (1.9) 6 (1.6) 0.933
 Other (e.g., arthritis, irritable bowel syndrome, autoimmune disorders) 126 (17.1) 61 (16.9) 65 (17.2) 0.992
Maltreatment experiencesa
 Maltreatment at age 16 years or younger
  Moderate/severe neglect, physical abuse, emotional abuse and/or sexual abuse 410/728 (56.3) 196/355 (55.2) 214/373 (57.4) 0.608
 Intimate partner violence in past year
  Any physical abuse, emotional abuse and harassment 363/734 (49.5) 181/358 (50.6) 182/376 (48.4) 0.61
  1. aParticipants could give more than one answer. Results in bold: p-value<0.05