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Table 3 Sociodemographic characteristics, psychological resources and cognitive functioning

From: The British Columbia Healthy Connections Project: findings on socioeconomic disadvantage in early pregnancy

   Age Group p-value
Total
N = 739
14–19 years
N = 361
20–24 years
N = 378
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Sociodemographic Characteristics
 Cultural backgrounda n = 738 n = 361 n = 378 0.099
  White 418 (56.6) 193 (53.5) 225 (59.5)  
  Indigenous including First Nations, Métis and Inuit 79 (10.7) 36 (10.0) 43 (11.4)  
  Indigenous including First Nations, Métis and Inuit and Other 121 (16.4) 73 (20.2) 48 (12.7)  
  Mixed Heritage ≥2 55 (7.4) 30 (8.3) 25 (6.6)  
  Asian (Chinese, S. Asian, or Other) 32 (4.3) 14 (3.9) 18 (4.8)  
  Other (e.g., Latin-American, Black) 34 (4.6) 15 (4.2) 19 (5.0)  
 English as first language 686 (93.0) 341 (94.7) 345 (91.3) 0.091
 Highest educational qualification n = 738 n = 360 n = 378 < 0.001
  Less than high school 384 (52.0) 246 (68.3) 138 (36.5)  
  High school or equivalent 270 (36.6) 103 (28.6) 167 (44.2)  
  College or university degree 84 (11.4) 11 (3.1) 73 (19.3)  
 Income from employment (annual CAD) n = 726 n = 354 n = 372 < 0.001
  Less than $5000 308 (42.4) 203 (57.3) 105 (28.2)  
  $5000 – 9999 118 (16.3) 60 (16.9) 58 (15.6)  
  $10,000 – 19,999 180 (24.8) 56 (15.8) 124 (33.3)  
  $20,000 – 29,999 75 (10.3) 21 (5.9) 54 (14.5)  
  $30,000 or more 45 (6.2) 14 (4.0) 31 (8.3)  
 Current Housing n = 725 n = 357 n = 368 0.138
  House, apartment or condominium 681 (93.9) 332 (93.0) 349 (94.8)  
  Group home, shelter or foster home 18 (2.5) 13 (3.6) 5 (1.4)  
  Other (e.g., mobile home/trailer, single-room occupancy residence) 26 (3.6) 12 (3.4) 14 (3.8)  
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)  
 Income from employment (annual CAD) 9928 (10575) 6811 (8976) 12,886 (11125) < 0.001
 Age 19.76 (2.36) 17.73 (1.17) 21.69 (1.40) < 0.001
 Psychological Resources
  Self-Efficacy 32.28 (3.93) 32.08 (3.79) 32.47 (4.05) 0.179
  Mastery 21.42 (3.06) 21.53 (3.08) 21.32 (3.05) 0.361
 Cognitive Functioning
  Shipley 2 – Vocabulary 24.35 (5.12) 23.53 (4.76) 25.13 (5.33) < 0.001
  Shipley 2 – Abstraction 11.89 (3.65) 11.73 (3.57) 12.04 (3.73) 0.248
 Executive functioning
  Stroop Colour-Word Task Score 43.99 (9.19) 42.46 (8.64) 45.45 (9.46) < 0.001
  Stroop Interference Score 5.39 (6.72) 4.48 (6.15) 6.26 (7.12) < 0.001
  Trail Making Test Bb 70.55 (32.67) 73.92 (33.23) 67.32 (31.84) 0.006
  Trail Making Test B /Ab 44.89 (29.28) 47.81 (29.87) 42.07 (28.45) 0.008
  1. aParticipants could give more than one answer; bShorter scores represent better performance on a timed task. Results in bold: p-value<0.05