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Table 2 Extraction form

From: Social network influences and the adoption of obesity-related behaviours in adults: a critical interpretative synthesis review

Type of evidence Paper reference and setting Dixon-Woods et al. [42] appraisal prompts for informing judgments about quality Relevance/Rigor Study design Methodological strengths Focus Effects networks Processes Factors Types of links Parameters
1 2 3 4 5
Qualitative Alvarado et al. [48]. Barbados (USA) Y Y Y Y Y Yes/yes Descriptive study, semi-structured interviews Well-described participants, provides quotes that reflect the results. Women between 25 and 35 years, BMI equal or greater 25, not pregnant. +/− Social support, homophily, social modelling, diffusion, social comparison, social pressure, natural communication Socio-cultural, psychosocial, technological, sociodemographic, environmental Sport contacts, family, friends  
Kennedy et al. [49]. Bulgaria, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain and UK Y Y Y Y Y Yes/Yes Qualitative study, biographical interviews. Well-described aims, sampling and recruitment and provides quotes that reflect the results Individuals with T2DM in deprived or marginalized circumstances +/− Social support, social pressure, homophily Socio-cultural, psychosocial, environmental Healthcare professionals, community, family, friends  
Forthofer et al. [50]. South Carolina (USA) Y Y Y Y Y Yes/Yes Descriptive study, focus groups Well-described sample and analysis Population older than 18 years old. + Social support, social modelling, social pressure, diffusion Environmental, socio-cultural, psychosocial Family, community Tie strength
Knutsen et al. [51]. Bulgaria, Greece, Norway, Spain and UK Y Y Y Y Y Yes/Yes Descriptive study, semi-structured interviews Well-described methods, provides quotes that reflect the results Individuals with T2DM from areas of high deprivation +/− Social support, social pressure, isolation Socio-cultural, sociodemographic Family, friends, community  
Ali et al. [52]. United Arab Emirates Y Y Y Y Y Yes/Yes Descriptive study, focus groups Well-described data collection, theoretical saturation, provides quotes that reflect the results Emirati national women, 18 years old and older with no previous diagnosis of diabetes + abdominal obesity +/− Homophily Psychosocial, socio-cultural, clinical, environmental Healthcare professionals, Housekeeping  
Mama et al. [53]. USA Y Y Y Y Y Yes/Yes Descriptive study, in -depth interviews Theoretical saturation, provides quotes that reflect the results Women middle-aged, obese and high socioeconomic status Social pressure, social modelling, social support, homophily Psychosocial, socio-cultural, environmental, sociodemographic Neighbours, family  
Robertson et al. [54]. Australia Y Y Y Y Y Yes/Yes Descriptive study, in- depth interviews, semi-structured interviews and focus groups Theoretical saturation, provides quotes that reflect the results Overweight adults +/− Social pressure, social comparison, social support Psychosocial, sociodemographic, socio-cultural Friends, family  
Sriram et al. [55]. USA Y Y Y Y Y Yes/Yes Descriptive study, focus groups Provides quotes that reflect the results Midlife and older adults +/− Social support, social comparison, isolation, social pressure, social modelling, diffusion Socio-cultural, environmental, sociodemographic, psychosocial Family, friends, community, pets  
Daborn et al. [56]. United Kingdom Y Y Y N Y Yes/Yes Descriptive study, face to face in-depth interviews Well-defined methods, provides quotes that reflect the results Middle-aged low-income men + Social comparison, social support. Psychosocial, socio-cultural, environmental, sociodemographic Family  
Bell et al. [57]. New Zealand Y Y Y N Y Yes/Yes Descriptive study, semi-structured interviews Provides quotes that reflect the results Indigenous adults + Social support Socio-cultural Family  
Mixed-methods Procter et al. [58]. United Kingdom Y Y Y Y Y Yes/Yes Descriptive study, exploratory cluster randomised controlled trial and semi-structured interviews Well-defined methods, provides quotes that reflect the results Adults employees +/− Social support, diffusion, natural communication, social pressure Sociodemographic, psychosocial, socio-cultural Healthcare professionals, community  
Vassilev et al. [59]. Greece, Spain, Bulgaria, Norway, United Kingdom, and Netherlands Y Y Y N Y Yes/Yes Cross-sectional observational study and interviews Well-defined methods and analysis Adult patients with T2DM +/−   Sociodemographic, psychosocial Healthcare professionals  
Koetsenruijter et al. [18]. Bulgaria, Greece, Netherlands, Norway, Spain and UK. Y Y Y Y Y Yes/Yes Observational study (interviews and questionnaires) Well described methods and analysis Patients with T2DM + Social support Sociodemographic Family, community organizations  
Quantitative O’Malley et al. [60]. USA Y Y Y Y Y Yes/Yes Descriptive study, network survey Well-defined methods Adults +    Friends Tie strength, degree
Conklin et al. [61]. United Kingdom Y Y Y Y Y Yes/Yes Descriptive study, questionnaires Well described sample and analysis Adults from the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer +/− Social support, isolation, Sociodemographic Family Tie strength
Mötteli et al. [62]. Switzerland Y Y Y Y Y Yes/Yes Descriptive study, cross-sectional study (egocentric network approach) Well described aims and well-defined methods Female adults +/− Homophily, social pressure. Socio-cultural Family Tie strength
Barclay et al. [63]. Sweden Y Y Y Y Y Yes/Yes Descriptive study, logistic regressions using egocentric network data Well-defined methods and analysis, well described aims Adults + Homophily   Friends Tie strength
Winston et al. [64]. USA Y Y Y Y Y Yes/Yes Descriptive study, cross-sectional examination of egocentric network data Well described analysis Black Hispanic adults with BMI more or equal 25 + Social support   Family, co-workers Size of the network, tie strength
Becofsky et al. [65]. USA Y Y Y Y Y Yes/Yes Descriptive study, questionnaires Well-described methods Adult patients + Social support   Family, friends Size of network
Shakya et al. [45]. USA Y Y Y Y Y Yes/Yes Descriptive study, longitudinal survey Well described statistical analysis American adults +/− Social comparison Socio-cultural, psychosocial   
Rancourt et al. [66]. USA Y Y Y Y Y Yes/Yes Descriptive study, ecological momentary assessment Well-defined methods Overweight young adult women + Social comparison   Friends  
Leahey et al. [27]. USA Y Y Y Y Y Yes/Yes Randomized trial Well-defined methods and procedures Adults with overweight or obesity +/− Homophily, Socio-cultural Family Tie strength, size of network
Hempler et al. [67]. Denmark Y Y Y Y Y Yes/Yes Descriptive study, cross-sectional surveys Well-described analysis Individuals with T1DM and T2DM    Clinical   
Christakis and Fowler [68]. USA Y Y Y Y Y Yes/Yes Descriptive study, longitudinal social network analysis Well-described analysis Adults +/− Homophily Sociodemographic Friends Degree of separation, social distance