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Table 2 Characteristics of included program evaluations

From: Geographical analysis of evaluated chronic disease programs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the Australian primary health care setting: a systematic scoping review

Program name Citation Years of program Type of program Targeted chronic disease(s)/risk factor(s) Evaluation study design Aboriginal participant sample size Evaluation outcome measures
Cooking Classes for Diabetes Program Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council 2009 [28]
Abbott, Davison, Moore & Rubinstein 2010 [29]
Abbott, Davison, Moore & Rubinstein 2012 [30]
2002–2007 Health promotion Diabetes, Poor nutrition Qualitative - post program semi-structured interviews 73 program participants, 23 interview participants (4 m, 19 f) Participant experience
Health Lifestyle and Weight Management Program Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council 2009 [28] 2005–2008 Health promotion and chronic disease prevention Poor nutrition, physical inactivity Mixed methods -pre, interim and post program quantitative and qualitative measures Not reported Clinical measures: BMI, height, weight, blood pressure, blood sugar level, waist, chest and hip ratio
Participant experience
Healthy Food Awareness Program Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council 2009 [28] 2008 Chronic disease prevention and management Poor nutrition, physical inactivity, smoking, obesity, renal disease, diabetes and other chronic diseases Not reported Not reported Not reported
‘No More Dhonga’ Short Course Adams et al. 2006 [31] 2004 Health promotion and chronic disease prevention Smoking Mixed methods-interim and post program measures 32 participants Stakeholder feedback
Course attendance and smoking quit rate
Home-Based, Outreach case Management of chronic disease Exploratory (HOME) Study program Askew et al. 2016 [32] Not reported Chronic disease management Diabetes type 2, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, kidney disease Mixed methods-post program semi-structured interviews, pre, interim and post program quantitative measures 41 participants, data collected from 37 participants (32 m, 68% f) Feasibility, acceptability and appropriateness of model
Renal Treatment Program Bailie et al. 2006 [33] 1995–1999 Chronic disease management End state renal disease Quantitative-interrupted time series of pre/post quantitative measures 266 participants, data collected from 98 participants Clinical measure: blood pressure
Moorditj Djena program Ballestas et al. 2014 [34] 2011-ongoing Chronic disease management Diabetes type 2, peripheral arterial disease, peripheral neuropathy Mixed methods- interim program focus groups, interviews and review of quantitative data Data collected from 702 participants (majority Aboriginal – not specified)
Participation not reported for qualitative data
Program delivery, quality of implementation and organizational context
Nurse-led practitioner project for chronic kidney disease Barrett et al. 2015 [35] 2012-ongoing Chronic disease management Chronic kidney disease Quantitative-clinical audit 187 participants Rates of detection and improvement in chronic disease management
Flinders self-management model (CCSM) Battersby et al. 2008 [36] 2001–2002 Chronic disease management Diabetes Mixed methods-pilot study with pre, interim and post quantitative data, post program focus group 60 participants (28 m, 32 f) Program acceptability and clinical outcomes (HbA1c, Diabetes Assessment Form, SF-12)
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome clinic program Boyle et al. 2017 [37] 2012–2013 Chronic disease management Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Mixed methods-post implementation evaluation using clinical audit, semi-structured interviews and focus groups Clinical audit involved 36 f participants, interviews with 8 clinicians and focus group with 8 f participants Process evaluation of program fidelity, barriers and enablers and whether the program met community needs
Diabetic retinopathy screening program Brazionis et al. 2018 [38] 2014–2016 Chronic disease prevention and management Diabetes Quantitative- cross-sectional study design 301 participants (33% m, 67% f) Clinical effectiveness: diabetic retinopathy prevalence rates and severity compared to other screening programs
Primary Health Care Outreach program of Aboriginal Health Checks Burgess et al. 2011 [39] 2005 Chronic disease management Cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases Quantitative- interrupted time series study with pre/post measures 64 participants (43 m, 21 f) Clinical measures (absolute cardiovascular risk, blood pressure, BMI), follow up appointments and outcomes
12 week exercise and nutrition program Canuto et al. 2012 [40]
Canuto 2013 [41]
Canuto et al. 2013 [42]
2010–2011 Health promotion Poor nutrition, physical inactivity Mixed methods-pragmatic randomised trial with mixed methods process evaluation 100 f participants at baseline, 41 lost to follow up. Not reported how many participated in interviews Program effectiveness on waist circumference, weigh and biomedical metabolic markers
Factors influencing program attendance
Healthy Lifestyle Programme (HELP) Chan et al. 2007 [43] Not reported Chronic disease management Diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors Quantitative- pre and post study 101 participants Effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention on clinical measures
Cardiac failure education program Clark et al. 2014 [44]
Clark et al. 2015 [45]
Not reported Chronic disease management Cardiovascular disease Mixed methods-pilot study with pre and post data 5 participants (3 m, 2 f) Feasibility and acceptability of resource
Drug and alcohol screening intervention Clifford et al. 2013 [46] Not reported Chronic disease prevention Drug and alcohol misuse Quantitative- pre and post study 314 participants Proportion of clients with alcohol screening
Health literacy intervention Crengle et al. 2017 [47] 2013 Chronic disease management Cardiovascular disease Quantitative-multi-site pre and post study 171 participants, 11 lost to follow up Effect of intervention on medication knowledge
Grog mob D’Abbs et al. 2013 [48] 2008–2009 Chronic disease prevention Risky alcohol behaviour Mixed methods-descriptive analysis of post program data 49 participants Examine whether program met its objectives, document implementation processes and gauge the impact on client outcomes
Cardiac and pulmonary secondary prevention program Davey et al. 2014 [49] 2011–2013 Chronic disease prevention and management Cardiovascular and pulmonary disease Mixed methods-pre and post study 92 participants (36 m, 56 f), qualitative feedback from 51 participants Program uptake and effectiveness
Smoking cessation program DiGiacomo et al. 2007 [50] 2005–2006 Chronic disease prevention Smoking Quantitative- case review 37 participants (10 m, 27 f) Screening rates and quit attempts
‘Heart health’ program cardiac secondary prevention Dimer et al. 2010 [51]
Dimer et al. 2012 [52]
Dimer et al. 2013 [53]
Maiorana et al. 2012 [54]
Maiorana et al. 2015 [55]
2009–2010 Chronic disease prevention and management Cardiovascular disease Mixed methods-pre and post data, interviews, yarning sessions and questionnaires 98 participants (35 m, 63 f) Uptake and effectiveness of program on lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors
Intensive quit smoking intervention Eades et al. 2012 [56] 2005–2009 Health promotion and chronic disease prevention Smoking Quantitative-randomised controlled trial 263 f participants Effectiveness of intervention on smoking rates
Give up the smokes program Gould, McGechan & Zwan 2010 [57] 2007–2008 Health promotion and chronic disease prevention Smoking Quantitative- pre and post study 10 participants Cultural appropriateness of program
Diabetes Management and Care program Gracey et al. 2006 [58] 2002 Chronic disease prevention and management Diabetes, poor nutrition, physical inactivity Quantitative- pre and post study 418 participants (181 m, 237 f) Impact of program on clinical measures
Koorie Men’s health day Isaacs & Lampitt 2014 [59] Not reported Health promotion and chronic disease prevention Mental illness Mixed methods-descriptive study 20 m participants (data available for 17) Model outcomes
Oral health literacy program Ju et al. 2017 [60] Not reported Health promotion Oral health Quantitative-randomised controlled trial 400 participants at baseline, 106 lost to follow up Oral health literacy
Oral health periodontal program Kapellas et al. 2013 [61]
Kapellas et al. 2014a [62]
Kapellas et al. 2014b [63]
Kapellas et al. 2017 [64]
2010–2012 Chronic disease prevention and management Oral health Quantitative-randomised controlled trial 273 participants, follow up data available for 169 Improvements in clinical outcomes
Structured chronic disease care planning program Kowanko et al. 2012 [65] 2008–2011 Chronic disease management All chronic diseases Mixed methods-Participatory Action Research framework 36 participants involved in longitudinal study, otherwise not reported Impact of chronic disease self-management strategies on health outcomes
Nurse-led Chronic Kidney Disease program Lawton et al. 2016 [66] 2007-ongoing Chronic disease management Chronic kidney disease Quantitative-interrupted time series Not reported Improvement in rate of chronic kidney disease detection and clinical markers
Walk about Together Program (WAT) Longstreet et al. 2008 [67] 2003–2005 Health promotion Unhealthy weight, poor nutrition Quantitative-pre and post study 100 participants (12% m, 88% f). Nutrient intake of program participants
Be Our Ally Beat Smoking (BOABS) program Marley et al. 2014a [68]
Marley et al. 2014b [18]
2009–2012 Health promotion Smoking Mixed methods-randomised controlled trial with qualitative component 168 randomised, 19 lost to follow up Efficacy of smoking cessation program at 12 months follow up
Getting better at chronic care program McDermott et al. 2015 [69]
Schmidt, Campbell & McDermott 2016 [70]
Segal et al. 2016 [71]
2011–2013 Chronic disease management Diabetes and other chronic diseases Mixed methods-pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial with qualitative component and economic analysis 213 participants randomised (38% m, 62% female), 24 lost to follow up, 21 interview participants Program effectiveness in improving care of participants with diabetes
Experience of health workers implementing program
Program cost-effectiveness
Work it out program Mills et al. 2017 [72] 2012–2014 Chronic disease prevention and management Cardiovascular disease Quantitative- quasi-experimental with pre and post data 85 participants Impact on clinical outcomes at 12 weeks post implementation
Mental illness brief intervention program Nagel & Thompson 2008 [73]
Nagel et al. 2008 [74]
2004–2007 Chronic disease management Mental illness Mixed methods-randomised controlled trial with qualitative component 49 participants Program effectiveness on clinical outcomes
Get Healthy Service program Quinn et al. 2017 [75] 2009–2015 Health promotion All chronic diseases Mixed methods-pre and post study with qualitative component 30 participants interviewed (5 m, 25 f), quantitative data collection involved 1462 participants Program reach and impact on lifestyle risk factors
Antiviral therapy Hepatitis C program Read et al. 2017 [76] 2016-ongoing Chronic disease prevention and management Hepatitis C Quantitative-observational cohort study 23 participants Efficacy of program
Quality Assurance for Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Medical Services (QAAMS) program Shephard 2006 [77]
Shephard et al. 2017 [78]
Spaeth, Shephard & Schatz 2014 [79]
1999-ongoing Chronic disease management Diabetes Mixed methods-key stakeholder and client questionnaire with open questions, case studies, comparison of baseline and post implementation data, longitudinal quality assurance data, before and after study design 161 participants completed client questionnaire,
907 program participants
Program satisfaction
Quality assurance and imprecision
Clinical and operational efficiency
Point-of-Care in Aboriginal Hands Shepherd et al. 2006 [80] 2001-ongoing Chronic disease management All chronic diseases Mixed methods-interviews, comparison of baseline and post implementation data Data collected from 626 participants Community acceptability of program
Western Desert Kidney Health Screening program Sinclair et al. 2016 [81] 2012 Chronic disease prevention and management Chronic kidney disease, diabetes Qualitative-interviews 26 participants (11 m, 15 f) Community acceptability of program
COACH programme Ski et al. 2017 [82] Not reported Chronic disease prevention and management Cardiovascular disease Quantitative-longitudinal outcomes in participants Not reported Program effectiveness in reducing cardiovascular risk
Diabetic retinopathy screening program Spurling et al. 2010 [83] 2007–2009 Chronic disease management Diabetes Mixed methods-semi-structured interviews, descriptive analysis of demographic data and screening rates 132 participants (60 m, 72 f) Program impact and accessibility
Indigenous adult health checks program Spurling, Hayman & Cooney 2009 [84] 2007–2008 Chronic disease prevention and management All chronic diseases Quantitative- cross-sectional study 413 participants Evaluate role of program
Shared medical appointment program Stevens et al. 2016 [85] Not reported Chronic disease prevention and management All chronic diseases Mixed methods-post program questionnaires, interviews and field notes 14 m participants Program acceptability and appropriateness
Community singing program Sun & Buys 2012 [86]
Sun & Buys 2013a [87]
Sun & Buys 2013b [88]
Sun & Buys 2013c [89]
Sun & Buys 2013d [90]
Sun & Buys 2013e [91]
Sun & Buys 2013f [92]
Sun & Buys 2016 [93]
2010–2012 Chronic disease management Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, depression, psychosis Mixed methods-pre and post study design with numerous outcome measures, questionnaires, focus group sessions 45 participants Program effectiveness and impact
Home Medicines Review program Swain 2016 [94]
Swain & Barclay 2015 [95]
2001-ongoing Chronic disease management All chronic diseases Mixed methods-focus group sessions with indigenous consumers, interviews with health workers, cross-sectional survey with pharmacists 102 participants Usefulness of program for Indigenous
people
Facilitators and barriers to program uptake
‘Yaka Narali’ Tackling Indigenous Smoking program Tane et al. 2016 [96] 2009-ongoing Health promotion Smoking Qualitative-interviews 30 participants Program effectiveness
Ngangkari Program Togni 2017 [97] Not reported Chronic disease management Mental illness, Social and Emotional Wellbeing Qualitative-interviews and focus group sessions 18 participants Developmental evaluation of program model
Deadly Liver Mob program Treloar et al. 2018 [98] 2013-ongoing Health promotion and chronic disease prevention Hepatitis C Mixed methods-pre and post study with qualitative component Quantitative data collected from 710 participants, 19 participant interviews Program acceptability
Music therapy program Truasheim 2014 [99] 2012 Chronic disease management All chronic diseases Mixed methods-survey data and some clinical measures 13 participants (4 m, 9 f) Examine cultural safety of program
Perinatal mental health program Verrier et al. 2013 [100] Not reported Chronic disease prevention and management Mental illness, Social and Emotional Wellbeing Mixed methods-pre and post study with quantitative and qualitative data Not reported Program impact