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Table 2 Results for inter-rater reliability and reliability between GSV and in-field audits using percent agreement and the Kappa statistic

From: Assessing the micro-scale environment using Google Street View: the Virtual Systematic Tool for Evaluating Pedestrian Streetscapes (Virtual-STEPS)

  GSV with field Inter-rater
Item Percent agreement Kappa or ICC Percent agreement Kappa or ICC
Pedestrian Infrastructure
 Presence of Sidewalks 100 1.00 96.6 0.97
 Sidewalk Continuity 94.9 0.87 94.9 0.90
 Sidewalk Buffer 100 1.00 100 N/A
 Sidewalk Quality 82.1 0.63 91.5 0.81
 Pedestrian Sign/Timer 100 1.00 100 1.00
 Pedestrian Crossing Sign 92.3 0.63 94.9 0.38
 Crosswalk Markings 92.3 0.85 96.6 0.91
 Benches 89.7 0.73 94.9 0.74
 Streetlights 69.2 0.51 78.0 0.69
 Curb Cuts 97.4 0.93 91.5 0.83
 Curb Cut Quality 94.9 0.64 93.2 0.31
 Tactile Paving 97.4 0.93 89.8 0.79
Traffic Calming and Streets
 Traffic Lights 100 1.00 100 1.00
 Traffic Island 97.4 0.84 94.9 0.80
 Stop Lines 89.7 0.77 91.5 0.82
 Stops Signs 97.4 0.98 96.6 0.91
 Curb Extension 97.4 0.65 98.3 0.79
 Speed Bump 97.4 0.66 98.3 0.66
 Bollards 97.4 0.84 98.3 N/A
 Number of Traffic Lanes 87.2 0.84 81.4 0.70
 Number of Parking Lanes 76.9 0.82 66.1 0.64
 Driveways 87.2 0.85 84.7 0.76
Building Characteristics
 Building Height 89.4 0.88 94.9 0.91
 Building Setback 87.2 0.88 82.8 0.83
 Building Design Variation 66.7 0.47 69.5 0.47
Transit
 Presence of Transit 100 1.00 98.3 0.91
 Type of Transit 97.4 0.92 98.3 0.93
 Transit Facilities 100 1.00 98.3 0.97
Bicycling Infrastructure
 Bike Lanes 92.3 0.75 98.3 0.91
 Bike Buffer 100 1.00 100 1.00
 Bike Facilities 89.7 0.71 93.2 0.63
Aesthetics
 Presence of Trees 76.9 0.70 61 0.55
 Shade 79.5 0.55 49.2 0.16
 Nature Areas 82.1 0.62 84.7 0.69
 Landscaping 79.5 0.56 86.4 0.42
 Landscape Maintenance 94.9 0.72 86.4 0.42
 Presence of Litter 71.8 0.47 71.2 0.54
 Graffiti 84.6 0.69 94.9 0.88
 Broken/Boarded Windows 87.2 0.39 98.3 N/A
 Attractive Segment 66.7 0.58 57.6 0.44