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Table 4 Pearson correlation coefficients between student health related outcomes using measures by Hong Kong Student Health Survey Questionnaire (HKSHQ) and core indicators of the six key areas (** p-value < 0.01, * p-value< 0.05)

From: Effective health promoting school for better health of children and adolescents: indicators for success

(a) Action Competencies (AC) for Healthy Living and Health Related Outcomes
HKSHQ measures Primary schools Secondary Schools
AC1.11 AC1.3 AC2.1 AC3.2 AC3.3 AC4.3 AC1.1 AC2.1
% of students think they are having good academic performance in past 12 months 0.175 0.138 0.085 0.155 0.260* 0.023 0.367** 0.121
% of students think they are having good health status over past 30 days 0.314** 0.349** 0.234* 0.256* 0.276** 0.118 0.108 0.003
% of students that often obey traffic signals 0.258* 0.034 0.229* 0.075 0.259 0.248* 0.400** 0.308*
% of students that often put on seatbelts 0.166 0.004 0.126 0.171 0.230* 0.171 0.370** 0.275*
% of students having enough vegetable every day 0.152 0.186 −0.011 0.236* 0.253* 0.001 −0.055 −0.242
% of students having enough fruit every day 0.243* 0.303** 0.099 0.264* 0.269* 0.158 0.258 0.147
% of students having crisps more than 4 times per week −0.149 −0.348** −0.069 − 0.136 −0.029 − 0.046 −0.267* 0.058
% of students having candies more than 4 times per week −0.266* −0.487** − 0.177 −0.167 − 0.179 −0.075 − 0.427** −0.110
% of students having soft drink more than 4 times per week −0.326** −0.356** − 0.192 −0.287** − 0.166 −0.214* − 0.193 −0.158
% of students having preserved meat more than 4 times per week −0.211* −0.291** − 0.101 −0.295** − 0.131 −0.064 − 0.395** −0.137
% of students having enough physical activity 0.330** 0.281** 0.206 0.240* 0.280** 0.318** 0.094 −0.032
Mean K6 score of students −0.323** − 0.359** −0.205 − 0.362** −0.277** − 0.246* −0.372** − 0.307*
% of students smoke −0.078 0.080 −0.046 − 0.248* −0.070 − 0.057 −0.115 − 0.267*
Mean Life satisfaction score of students - family life 0.200 0.125 0.271* 0.236* 0.271* 0.299* 0.062 0.245
Mean Life satisfaction score of students - friendship 0.066 −0.035 0.098 0.231 0.202 0.237* −0.068 0.231
Mean Life satisfaction score of students - themselves 0.262* 0.039 0.348** 0.061 0.376** 0.459** 0.126 0.220
Mean Life satisfaction score of students - living environment 0.218 0.042 0.225 0.285* 0.230 0.338** 0.139 0.271
Mean Life satisfaction score of students - overall life 0.155 0.034 0.193 0.186 0.259* 0.347** 0.107 0.291*
(b) Community Links (CL) and Health Related Outcomes
HKSHQ measures Primary schools Secondary schools      
CL1.2 CL2.2 CL2.2      
% of students think they are having good health status over past 30 days 0.110 0.370** 0.274*      
Mean Life satisfaction score of students - family life 0.268* 0.328** 0.040      
Mean Life satisfaction score of students - themselves 0.235* 0.305** 0.280      
Mean Life satisfaction score of students - living environment 0.193 0.255* 0.133      
Mean Life satisfaction score of students - overall life 0.155 0.292* 0.128      
(c) School’s Social Environment (SE) and Health Related Outcomes
HKSHQ measures Primary schools Secondary Schools      
SE2.2 SE3.2 SE3.2      
% of students think they are having good academic performance in past 12 months 0.223* 0.037 0.174      
% of students having enough physical activity 0.252* 0.190 0.006      
% of students having K6 score > 12 (indicating poor mental health) −0.259* −0.241* −0.300*      
Mean K6 score of students −0.211* −0.291** − 0.248      
(d) School’s Physical Environment (PE) and Health Related Outcomes
HKSHQ measures Primary Schools Secondary schools     
PE1.1 PE4.1 PE1.1 PE4.1     
% of students having enough fruit every day 0.119 0.164 0.194 0.345**     
% of students having soft drink more than 4 times per week −0.278** − 0.282** −0.046 0.082     
% of students having enough physical activity 0.216* 0.239* 0.248 0.055     
Mean K6 score of students −0.227* − 0.183 −0.284* − 0.302*     
Mean Life satisfaction score of students - living environment 0.265* 0.220 0.335* 0.072     
Mean Life satisfaction score of students - overall life 0.258* 0.183 0.196 0.110     
(e) School Health Care and Promotion Services (HS) and Health Related Outcomes
HKSHQ measures Primary Schools Secondary Schools       
HS2.3 HS2.3       
% of students think they are having good health status over past 30 days 0.224* 0.272*       
Mean K6 score of students −0.140 −0.280*       
(f) Healthy School Policies (PO) and Health Related Outcomes
HKSHQ measures Primary schools Secondary Schools     
PO2.3 PO2.1 PO2.2 PO2.4     
% of students that often obey traffic signals 0.006 0.173 0.260* 0.232     
% of students that often put on seatbelts −0.124 0.270 0.259* 0.157     
% of students feeling so sad or hopeless that he/she will stop usual activities −0.226* −0.079 − 0.025 −0.094     
% of students who are classified as underweight −0.005 −0.288* − 0.349** −0.509**     
Mean Life satisfaction score of students - school experience −0.022 0.261 0.388** 0.055     
Mean Life satisfaction score of students - overall life −0.040 0.149 0.296* −0.151     
  1. The number 1.1 reflect the particular indicator, i.e., School adopts a systematic approach to conduct health education. Can refer to appendix for details of indicators under each key area