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Table 6 Relationship between area-level SES and type of urbanization with average number of steps per day

From: Relationships between area-level socioeconomic status and urbanization with active transportation, independent mobility, outdoor time, and physical activity among Canadian children

Independent variables Dependent variable: steps per day
Girls Boys
B 95% CI p B 95% CI p
Fixed Effects
  (Intercept) 11,238.91 10,027.93–12,449.88 < 0.001 12,811.19 11,529.94–14,092.44 < 0.001
 School SES: low (ref: high) − 331.50 − 1291.55 - 628.56 0.502 − 380.06 − 1357.45 - 597.32 0.449
 Site: Vancouver (ref: Ottawa) 518.26 − 630.67 - 1667.18 0.381 − 144.87 − 1339.18 - 1049.45 0.813
 Site: Trois-Rivières − 165.61 − 1384.79 - 1053.57 0.791 301.87 − 955.33 - 1559.08 0.640
 Type of urbanization: suburban (ref: urban) 266.78 − 876.33 - 1409.88 0.649 89.97 − 1072.09 - 1252.04 0.880
 Type of urbanization: rural −78.52 − 1250.97 - 1093.93 0.896 154.67 − 1060.84 - 1370.17 0.804
 Parental education: high school or less (ref: University) 217.16 − 501.66 - 935.98 0.556 −459.46 − 1406.80 - 487.87 0.346
 Parental education: college 93.23 −452.51 - 638.96 0.739 − 397.81 − 1081.85 - 286.23 0.259
 Age in years (centered) −56.42 − 288.97 - 176.12 0.636 −478.02 −778.04 - -178.00 0.003
 Car ownership: ≥ 2 cars (ref: ≤ 1 car) 136.17 − 328.47 - 600.81 0.568 185.22 − 432.94 - 803.38 0.559
 Home ownership: yes (ref: no) −65.26 −597.69 - 467.16 0.811 183.09 − 523.90 - 890.08 0.614
Random Effects
 σ2 10,316,244.723 14,336,948.928
 τ00, School_ID 1,673,547.941 1,455,090.348
 NSchool_ID 37 37
 ICCSchool_ID 0.140 0.092
 Observations 935 764
 R2 / Ω02 0.167 / 0.160 0.140 / 0.129
 AIC 17,836.433 14,823.427
 Deviance 17,810.433 14,797.427
  1. B Unstandardized beta coefficient, CI Confidence interval, p p-value, SES Socioeconomic status, σ2 variance within cluster groups (schools), τ00 variance within the dependent variable between schools, N Number of schools, ICC Intraclass correlation coefficient, R2 / Ω02 pseudo R2 estimates, AIC Akaike information criterion