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Table 5 Relationship between area-level SES and type of urbanization in weekend day outdoor time

From: Relationships between area-level socioeconomic status and urbanization with active transportation, independent mobility, outdoor time, and physical activity among Canadian children

Independent variables Dependent variable: weekend day outdoor time (≤2 h (ref) vs. > 2 h)
Girls Boys
Odds Ratio 95% CI p Odds Ratio 95% CI p
Fixed Parts
  (Intercept) 1.05 0.63–1.73 0.863 0.78 0.44–1.40 0.411
 School SES: low (ref: high) 0.48 0.32–0.71 < 0.001 0.63 0.41–0.97 0.034
 Site: Vancouver (ref: Ottawa) 0.73 0.47–1.15 0.174 0.83 0.49–1.40 0.491
 Site: Trois-Rivières 1.63 0.97–2.74 0.065 2.08 1.16–3.72 0.014
 Type of urbanization: suburban (ref: urban) 1.36 0.87–2.13 0.177 0.76 0.46–1.26 0.291
 Type of urbanization: rural 2.34 1.44–3.79 < 0.001 1.45 0.84–2.51 0.187
 Parental education: high school or less (ref: University) 1.22 0.77–1.95 0.398 1.68 0.99–2.87 0.057
 Parental education: college 1.53 1.08–2.19 0.018 1.52 1.04–2.23 0.032
 Age in years (centered) 0.76 0.65–0.88 < 0.001 0.93 0.79–1.10 0.421
 Car ownership: ≥ 2 cars (ref: ≤ 1 car) 0.86 0.63–1.16 0.321 1.23 0.87–1.74 0.231
 Home ownership: yes (ref: no) 0.83 0.59–1.17 0.285 1.32 0.90–1.95 0.156
Random Parts
 τ00, School_ID 0.137 0.183
 NSchool_ID 37 37
 ICCSchool_ID 0.040 0.053
 Observations 935 764
 Tjur’s D 0.102 0.108
 AIC 1242.057 1014.855
 -2 Log-Likelihood 1218.057 990.855
 Deviance 1182.387 953.839
  1. CI confidence interval, p p-value, SES Socioeconomic status, τ00 variance within the dependent variable between schools, N Number of schools, ICC Intraclass correlation coefficient, AIC Akaike information criterion