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Table 3 Relationship between area-level SES and type of urbanization with the number of independent mobility licences

From: Relationships between area-level socioeconomic status and urbanization with active transportation, independent mobility, outdoor time, and physical activity among Canadian children

Independent variables Dependent variable: independent mobility licences
Girls Boys
B 95% CI p B 95% CI p
Fixed Effects
 (Intercept) 1.85 1.45–2.25 < 0.001 2.23 1.82–2.63 < 0.001
 School SES: low (ref: high) −0.19 −0.50 - 0.12 0.239 0.05 − 0.25 - 0.35 0.725
 Site: Vancouver (ref: Ottawa) −0.22 − 0.59 - 0.15 0.248 − 0.18 − 0.55 - 0.18 0.330
 Site: Trois-Rivières 0.67 0.28–1.07 0.002 0.36 −0.03 - 0.76 0.076
 Type of urbanization: suburban (ref: urban) 0.01 −0.36 - 0.37 0.976 −0.20 −0.56 - 0.15 0.261
 Type of urbanization: rural 0.14 −0.24 - 0.52 0.466 0.05 −0.32 - 0.43 0.778
 Parental education: high school or less (ref: University) 0.07 −0.23 - 0.37 0.635 −0.24 −0.60 - 0.12 0.197
 Parental education: college 0.18 −0.05 - 0.41 0.131 0.00 −0.26 - 0.26 0.992
 Age in years (centered) 0.55 0.45–0.65 < 0.001 0.63 0.52–0.75 < 0.001
 Car ownership: ≥ 2 cars (ref: ≤ 1 car) −0.00 −0.20 - 0.19 0.961 −0.16 − 0.40 - 0.07 0.186
 Home ownership: yes (ref: no) 0.07 −0.16 - 0.29 0.567 0.28 0.02–0.55 0.041
Random Effects
 σ2 1.834 2.109
 τ00, School_ID 0.138 0.097
 NSchool_ID 37 37
 ICCSchool_ID 0.070 0.044
 Observations 935 764
 R2 / Ω02 0.294 / 0.293 0.243 / 0.241
 AIC 3283.974 2787.764
 Deviance 3257.974 2761.764
  1. B Unstandardized beta coefficient, CI confidence interval, p p-value, SES Socioeconomic status, σ2 variance within cluster groups (schools), τ00 variance within the dependent variable between schools, N Number of schools, ICC Intraclass correlation coefficient, R2 / Ω02 pseudo R2 estimates, AIC Akaike information criterion