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Table 4 Factors associated with childhood overweight/obesity n = 575

From: Prevalence and associated factors of childhood overweight/obesity among primary school children in urban Nepal

Characteristics Overweight/obesity (row %) Unadjusted odds ratio (95% CI) Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)
Related to respondent
Age (in years)
  ≤ 29 14 (21.5)   
 30–39 73 (25.2) 1.22 (0.64–2.34) 0.85 (0–38-1.87)
 40–49 54 (27.6) 1.38 (0.71–2.71) 0.75 (0.30–1.82)
  ≥ 50 7 (29.2) 1.50 (0.52–4.33) 0.95 (0.24–3.74)
Sex
 Male 77 (24.4)   
 Female 71 (27.4) 1.17 (0.81–1.71) 1.10 (0.65–1.87)
Father’s educational status
 Below high school 22 (15)   
 High school 24 (18.9) 1.32 (0.70–2.49) 0.80 (0.32–2.01)
 University level 102 (34.2) 2.95 (1.77–4.93)** 0.86 (0.34–2.26)
Occupation of father
 Unskilled worker 7 (35)   
 Skilled worker 18 (15.5) 0.34 (0.12–0.97) 0.15 (0.43–0.53)
 Clerical, shop owner, farmer 17 (14.5) 0.31 (0.11–0.91) 0.18 (0.05–0.63)
 Profession 106 (32.9) 0.91 (0.35–2.35) 0.25 (0.07–0.84)
Monthly income (NRs) (1 USD = 102.5 NRs)
  < 10,000 7 (18.9)   
 10,000-25,000 23 (18.1) 0.94 (.37–2.42) 1.23 (0.36–4.22)
 25,001-50,000 35 (17.2) 0.89 (.36–2.18) 0.88 (0.25–3.08)
  > 50,000 83 (40.1) 2.86 (1.20–6.83)* 1.45 (0.40–5.20)
Mother’s educational ststus
 Below high school 22 (11.8)   
 High school 34 (24.6) 2.45 (1.35–4.42)* 3.13 (1.39–7.12)*
 University level 87 (37.8) 4.56 (2.71–7.66)* 3.09 (1.23–7.70)*
Occupation of mother
 Unskilled worker or housewife 72 (22)   
 Skilled worker 8 (16.7) 0.71 (.31–1.58) 0.90 (0.25–2.25)
 Clerical, shop owner, farmer 3 (8.6) 0.33 (.09–1.12) 0.44 (0.11–1.65)
 Profession 65 (39.6) 2.33 (1.55–3.51)** 1.34 (1.02–4.05)**
Related to child
Age (in years)
 6–9 68 (21.7)   
 10–13 80 (30.7) 1.59 (1.09–2.32)* 1.36 (0.86–2.16)
Sex
 Male 97 (29.6) 1.61 (1.09–2.38)* 2.21 (1.38–3.53)**
 Female 51 (20.6)   
Birth weight
 Normal 132 (24)   
 LGA 16 (66.7) 6.34 (2.65–15.16)** 2.42 (0.83–7.01)
Family type
 Nuclear 99 (28.4)   
 Joint 38 (23.6) 0.77 (0.51–1.19) 0.77 (0.46–1.28)
 Extended 11 (16.7) 0.50 (0.25–1.01) 0.59 (0.27–1.29)
Ethnicity
 Janajati 67 (27.3)   
 Not Janajati 81 (24.5) 0.86 (0.59–1.26) 0.78 (0.49–1.25)
Dietary characteristics of children
 Low junk food consumption (< 2 times /week) 100 (21.2)   
 High junk food consumption(≥ 2 times/week) 48 (46.2) 3.18 (2.03–4.95)** 2.92 (1.66–5.12)**
Homemade food, taken to school
 Yes 113 (23.6)   
 No 35 (36.1) 1.82 (1.14–2.90)* 1.58 (1.11–2.58)*
Drinks soft drinks
 No 25 (25.8)   
 Yes 123 (25.7) 0.99 (0.61–1.64) 1.13 (0.63–2.05)
Physical activity level
 Low 148 (26.7)   
 High 0 (0) 0 0
Mode of transport to school
 On foot 18 (11.7)   
 By school bus 110 (31.8) 3.52 (2.05–6.05)** 2.38 (1.12–4.79)*
 Own or public vehicles 20 (26.7) 2.75 (1.35–5.58)** 2.49 (1.24–6.72)*
Sedentary behavior on weekdays
 Recommended (≤2 h a day) 146 (25.7)   
 High (> 2 h a day) 2 (33.3) 1.41 (0.26–7.99) 3.2 (0.41–26.90)
Sedentary behavior on weekend
 Recommended (≤2 h a day) 130 (23.9)   
 High (> 2 h a day) 18 (56.3) 4.09 (1.97–8.44)** 3.01 (1.20–7.29)*
  1. Hosmer-Lemmeshow goodness of fit test of final model: 0.633
  2. Bold* indicates significance at p-value < 0.05
  3. Bold** indicates significance at p-value < 0.001(LGA: Large for gestational age)