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Table 3 Factors associated with first antenatal care attendance

From: “No visible signs of pregnancy, no sickness, no antenatal care”: Initiation of antenatal care in a rural district in Northern Ghana

Exposure variable Gestation of pregnancy (trimester) at first ANC visit
N = 426 Early n(%) Late n(%) χ2(p < 0.05)
Age n = 426    
 15–24 134 75 (56.0) 59 (44.0) 16.707 (0.001)
 25–34 173 65 (37.6) 108 (62.4)  
 35–44 104 37 (35.6) 67 (64.4)  
 45–49 15 3 (20.0) 12 (80.0)  
Marital status n = 426    
 Single 17 10 (58.8) 7 (41.2) a2.447 (0.338)
 Married 405 169 (41.7) 236 (58.3)  
 Cohabiting 4 1 (25.0) 3 (75.0)  
Occupation n = 426    
 Unemployed 78 17 (21.8) 61 (78.2) 17.47(< 0.001)
 Employed 348 163 (46.8) 183 (53.2)  
Educational status n = 426 20 (11.6)   
 No education 172 62 (44.9) 152 (88.4) a154.183(< 0.001)
 Primary 138 53 (77.9) 76 (55.1)  
 Middle/Junior High 68 45 (93.8) 15 (22.1)  
 Secondary and above 48   3 (6.2)  
Religion n = 426    
 Traditional 115 24 (20.9) 91 (79.1) 46.352(< 0.001)
 Christian 266 146 (54.9) 120 (45.1)  
 Moslem 45 10 (22.2) 35 (77.8)  
Number of living children n = 426    
 1 89 47 (52.8) 42 (47.2) 26.466(< 0.001)
 2 104 54 (51.9) 50 (48.1)  
 3 72 34 (47.2) 38 (52.8)  
 4 85 30 (35.3) 55 (64.7)  
 5–7 62 13 (21.0) 49 (79.0)  
 8–9 14 2 (14.3) 12 (85.7)  
Ethnicity n = 426    
 Builsa 416 177 (42.6) 239 (57.4) a3.089 (0.392)
 Mamprusi 4 0 (0.0) 4 (100.0)  
 Kassena 4 2 (50.0) 2 (50.0)  
 Sissala 2 1 (50.0) 1 (50.0)  
Health insurance status n = 429    
 Insured 257 130 (50.6) 127 (49.4) 12.180 (0.001)
 Not insured 172 51 (29.9) 121 (70.1)  
Exposure to ANC information 426    
 Yes 408 171 (41.9) 237 (58.1) 0.462 (0.498)
 No 18 9 (50.0) 9 (50.0)  
  1. aFishers Exact test
  2. ANC antenatal care