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Table 2 The results of univariate analysis on the influencing factors of depression in participants with diabetes mellitus

From: Risk factors for depression in elderly diabetic patients and the effect of metformin on the condition

  OR 95.0% CI for OR P
Lower Upper
Kinds of hypoglycemic drugs 0.010
 No medication Ref    
 Metformin 0.506 0.299 0.856 0.011
 Other hypoglycemic drugs 1.003 0.576 1.748 0.990
Fasting blood-glucose 0.768
  < 7 Ref    
 7~11.1 0.978 0.615 1.556 0.925
  > 11.1 0.817 0.463 1.443 0.486
HbA1c 0.170
  < 7 Ref    
 7~9 0.718 0.449 1.147 0.166
  > 9 0.563 0.269 1.177 0.127
BMI 0.015
  < 24 Ref    
 24~28 2.106 1.269 3.493 0.004
  ≥ 28 1.484 0.743 2.965 0.263
Education 0.098
 Primary and below Ref    
 Middle school 1.430 0.762 2.685 0.265
 College and above 2.156 1.051 4.425 0.036
Companion
 Absent Ref    
 Present 0.882 0.488 1.595 0.678
Pension
 Absent Ref    
 Present 1.648 0.836 3.246 0.149
Sleep duration 0.103
 6~8 Ref    
  < 6 1.617 1.020 2.563 0.041
  > 8 0.854 0.290 2.512 0.774
Physical ability and activity
 Good Ref    
 Poor 2.717 1.753 4.211 0.000
Tobacco use 0.610
 Never Ref    
 Current 1.036 0.506 2.121 0.923
 Former 1.533 0.645 3.647 0.334
Alcohol use 0.120
 Never Ref    
 Current 2.022 1.025 3.991 0.042
 Former 0.971 0.196 4.815 0.971
Number of additional illnesses 0.000
 0 Ref    
 1~2 1.489 0.916 2.423 0.109
  > 2 7.026 3.128 15.782 0.000
  1. P values are significant at α = 0.05
  2. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, BMI Body Mass Index, OR Odds Ratio