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Table 1 The baseline conditions of the participants

From: Risk factors for depression in elderly diabetic patients and the effect of metformin on the condition

  Not Drepressed (N = 440) Depressed (N = 110)
Age 68.00 (64.00–76.00) 68.00 (64.00–76.00)
Gender
 Male 168 (38.2%) 42 (38.2%)
 Female 272 (61.8%) 68 (61.8%)
Kinds of hypoglycemic drugs
 No medication 90 (20.5%) 31 (28.2%)
 Metformin 250 (56.8%) 45 (40.9%)
 Other hypoglycemic drugs 100 (22.7%) 34 (30.9%)
Fasting blood-glucose
 < 7 175 (39.8%) 46 (41.8%)
 7~11.1 159 (36.1%) 41 (37.3%)
 > 11.1 106 (24.1%) 23 (20.9%)
HbA1c
 < 7 230 (52.3%) 68 (61.8%)
 7~9 151 (34.3%) 32 (29.1%)
 > 9 59 (13.4%) 10 (9.1%)
BMI
 < 24 164 (37.3%) 26 (23.6%)
 24~28 208 (47.3%) 68 (61.8%)
 ≥ 28 68 (15.5%) 16 (14.5%)
Education
 Primary and below 90 (20.5%) 16 (14.5%)
 Middle school 272 (61.8%) 66 (60.0%)
 College and above 78 (17.7%) 28 (25.5%)
Companion
 Absent 357 (81.1%) 91 (82.7%)
 Present 83 (18.9%) 19 (17.3%)
Pension
 Absent 407 (92.5%) 97 (88.2%)
 Present 33 (7.5%) 13 (11.8%)
Sleep duration
 6~8 306 (69.5%) 67 (60.9%)
 < 6 112 (25.5%) 39 (35.5%)
 > 8 22 (5.0%) 4 (3.6%)
Physical ability and activity
 Good 282 (64.1%) 44 (40.0%)
 Poor 158 (35.9%) 66 (60.0%)
Tobacco use
 Never 360 (81.8%) 88 (80.0%)
 Current 55 (12.5%) 13 (11.8%)
 Former 25 (5.7%) 9 (8.2%)
Alcohol use
 Never 397 (90.2%) 93 (84.5%)
 Current 33 (7.5%) 15 (15.6%)
 Former 10 (2.3%) 2 (1.8%)
Number of additional illnesses
 0 155 (35.2%) 26 (23.6%)
 1~2 270 (61.4%) 66 (60.6%)
 > 2 15 (3.4%) 18 (16.4%)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI Body Mass Index. Age, P values are significant at α = 0.05