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Table 1 Descriptive statistics, CHARLS 2011–2015 (n = 24,620)

From: Neighborhood social reciprocity and mental health among older adults in China: the mediating effects of physical activity, social interaction, and volunteering

Variables Proportion/Mean (SD)
Dependent variable
 CES-D score (range: 0–30) 8.31 (6.32)
Independent variables
 Neighbourhood social reciprocity ratio (0–1.0) 0.12 (0.10)
Social reciprocity (%)
 High 11.36
 Low 88.64
 Physical activity (weekly exercise time in hours) 9.41 (17.15)
 Frequency of social interaction with neighbours (range: 1–4) 1.78 (1.17)
Volunteering (%)
 Yes 3.02
 No 96.98
Control variables
 Gender (%)
  Male 48.92
  Female 51.08
  Age (in years) 67.25 (6.29)
Educational attainment (%)
 Primary school or less 81.93
 High school 16.52
 College or more 1.55
Marital status (%)
 Single, divorced or widowed 16.95
 Married and living with spouse 79.45
 Married and living apart from spouse 3.60
 Household size (number of persons) 3.08 (2.05)
Annual household incomes per capita (CNY)
 Residence (%)
  Urban neighbourhood 40.81
  Rural neighbourhood 59.19
Cigarette use (%)
 Current smoker 36.15
 Current non-smoker 63.85
Alcohol use (%)
 Yes 33.58
 No 66.42
Physical health status (%)
 Reported health problem 65.34
 No problems 34.66
ADL limited (%)
 Yes 52.25
 No 47.75
Medical insurance (%)
 Yes 26.74
 No 73.26