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Table 3 Characteristics of the participants at the baseline according to tertiles of Factor 2: helplessness/pessimism

From: Beliefs and attitudes towards lifestyle change and risks in primary care – a community-based study

  Factor 2: helplessness/pessimism Tertiles P-value*
I (< 60) N = 119 II (60–80) N = 111 III (> 80) N = 131  
Demographic
 Females, n (%) 67 (60) 54 (45) 59 (45) 0.024
 Age, years, mean (SD) 50 (10) 51 (10) 50 (9) 0.66
 Education: years, mean (SD) 10.8 (3.0) 10.6 (2.9) 10.8 (2.8) 0.90
 Education: university or university applied sciences, n (%) 32 (29) 41 (34) 36 (28) 0.81
 Living alone, n (%) 12 (11) 14 (12) 13 (10) 0.97
 Employed, n (%) 59 (53) 70 (58) 98 (75) < 0.001
Clinical
 Body mass index, kg/m2, mean (SD) 26.3 (6.2) 28.2 (4.9) 29.1 (4.4) < 0.001
 Fasting plasma glucose, mmol/l, mean (SD) 5.48 (1.38) 5.53 (0.76) 5.65 (1.04) 0.28
 Serum total cholesterol, mmol/l, mean (SD) 5.11 (1.07) 5.32 (1.26) 5.24 (1.19) 0.42
HDL-cholesterol, mmol/l, mean (SD)
 Male 1.18 (0.38) 1.07 (0.36) 1.04 (0.31) 0.043
 Female 1.48 (0.41) 1.36 (0.42) 1.25 (0.38) < 0.001
Triglycerides, mmol/l mean (SD)
 Male 1.36 (0.84) 1.48 (0.81) 1.64 (1.06) 0.12
 Female 1.16 (0.85) 1.28 (0.67) 1.26 (0.61) 0.44
Blood pressure mm/Hg, mean (SD)
 Systolic 137 (21) 141 (18) 141 (17) 0.14
 Diastolic 82 (12) 84 (11) 84 (10) 0.13
 Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), mean (SD) 7.1 (7.0) 5.8 (6.1) 4.3 (5.9) < 0.001
 BDI ≥10, n (%) 33 (30) 21 (17) 16 (12) < 0.001
Current medication
 Hypertension, n (%) 25 (23) 24 (20) 31 (24) 0.78
 Cholesterol-lowering, n (%) 18 (16) 17 (14) 13 (10) 0.15
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 4 (4) 7 (6) 5 (4) 0.96
Current smoking, n (%) 30 (28) 30 (25) 29 (22) 0.35
Leisure-time physical activity, n (%)     0.65
 Low 22 (20) 19 (16) 23 (18)  
 Medium 28 (26) 32 (27) 43 (33)  
 High 59 (54) 68 (57) 64 (49)  
  1. *P for linearity