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Table 3 The Relationship of Minimum Wage, Access to Care, Health Behaviors and Health (Whites)

From: Examining the association of changes in minimum wage with health across race/ethnicity and gender in the United States

Outcome Total Men Women
Wage Ratio Minimum Wage Wage Ratio Minimum Wage Wage Ratio Minimum Wage
Access to Care
 No Health Insurance1 −.00 (−.01,.00) N = 623,932 −.01 −.02,−.00) N = 623,932 -.00 (−.01,.01) N = 289,254 −.01 (−.02,.00) N = 289,254 −.00 (−.01,.00) N = 334,678 −.01 (−.02, .00) N = 334,678
 Missed care due to cost1 −.01 (−.01,-.00) N = 589,983 −.01 (−.02,-.00) N = 589,983 −.01 (−.01,.00) N = 273,535 −.01 (−.02, −.00) N = 273,535 −.01 (−.02, .00) N = 316,448 −.01 (−.02,-.00) N = 316,448
Health Behavior
 No exercise1 .00 (−.00,.01) N = 557,307 .01 (.00,.02) N = 557,307 .01 (.00,.02) N = 257,669 .02 (.00,.03) N = 257,669 −.01 (−.02,.00) N = 299,638 .00 (−.01,.02) N = 299,638
 Fruit Consumption2 1.02 (1.00,1.05) N = 322,351 1.00 (.97,1.04) N = 322,351 1.04 (.99,1.08) N = 148,088 1.01 (.96,1.06) N = 148,088 1.01 (.98,1.04) N = 174,263 1.00 (.96,1.04) N = 174,263
 Vegetable Consumption2 1.03 (1.01,1.05) N = 321,288 1.00 (.98,1.02) N = 321,288 1.03 (1.00,1.06) N = 147,452 .99 (.96,1.03) N = 147,452 1.03 (1.00,1.05) N = 173,836 1.00 (.98,1.03) N = 173,836
 Alcohol Consumption2 1.01 (.98,1.03) N = 404,016 1.00 (.97,1.03) N = 404,016 1.01 (.97, 1.04) N = 199,207 1.00 (.95,1.04) N = 199,207 1.01 (.97,1.05) N = 204,809 1.01 (.96,1.06) N = 204,809
Health Outcomes
 Self-reported poor health1 .00 (−.00,.01) N = 623,682 −.00 (−.01,.01) N = 623,682 .01 (.00,.02) N = 289,243 .01 (−.00,.02) N = 289,243 −.01 (−.01,-.00) N = 334,439 −.01 (−.02,−.00) N = 334,439
 Self-reported HTN1 .00 (−.01,.01) N = 343,549 −.00 (−.01,.01) N = 343,549 .00 (−.01,.02) N = 158,946 −.00 (−.02,.01) N = 158,946 −.00 (−.01,.01) N = 184,603 −.00 (−.02,.01) N = 184,603
 Unhealthy Days2 1.01 (.98,1.03) N = 616,008 .99 (.96,1.03) N = 616,008 1.02 (.97,1.06) N = 285,904 1.00 (.94,1.06) N = 285,904 1.00 (.96,1.03) N = 330,104 .98 (.94,1.02) N = 330,104
 Poor Mental Health Days2 1.00 (.96, 1.03) N = 609,531 .97 (.93,1.02) N = 609,531 1.00 (.94,1.06) N = 283,124 .98 (.91,1.05) N = 283,124 .99 (.95,1.03) N = 326,407 .97 (.92,1.02) N = 326,407
 Poor Physical Health Days2 1.02 (.98,1.07) N = 610,595 1.01 (.96,1.06) N = 610,595 1.04 (.97,1.11) N = 283,629 1.02 (.94,1.11) N = 283,629 1.00 (.95,1.06) N = 326,966 .99 (.93,1.06) N = 326,966
  1. The data source is BRFSS (1993–2014 panels). Linear Probability Models and Poisson Regression Models are used to examine dichotomous and count outcomes, respectively. All models control for state earned income tax credit rate, refundability of state earned income tax credit, Maximum food stamp allotment for a family of 3 maximum TANF allotment for a family of 3, 1-year lagged GDP, comprehensive Medicaid expansion, age, marital status, education and having minor children, year as well as state fixed-effects. All models are weighted for complex survey design and non-response. Total population models also control for gender. Standard errors are robust and clustered at the state level. Results of LPMs and PRMs are presented as percentage point differences in the probability of an outcome and Rate Ratios, respectively. All monetary values are inflation-adjusted. Boldface indicates statistical significance. Significance levels: *(access to care: p-value-.025, health behaviors: p-value−.0125, and health outcomes: p-value .010) (Bonferroni-corrected 95% confidence intervals in parenthesis). Notes: 1. Marginal effect 2. Rate Ratio; Bold indicates statistical significance